§ 1 Should and ought to in comparison - Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов гуманитарных специальностей вузов Втрех частях

§ 1 Should and ought to in comparison

Should and ought to are very much alike in meaning and are often interchangeable.

Ought to has more stress on the meaning of moral obligation, whereas should is common in instructions and corrections.

1. Should/ought to are used to talk about

NOTE: Should may acquire additional shades of meaning, such as desirability: It’s late. You should go to bed.

NOTE: Ought to is not used in this case.

The letter should have arrived by now (I expect it has arrived).

2. Should/ought to + Continuous Infinitive express the idea that the subject is not fulfilling his obligations or that he is acting rashly or foolishly: He ought to be studying for the exams. He shouldn’t be playing baseball for hours.

3. Should/ought to + Perfect Infinitive in:

a) an affirmative sentence indicates an unfulfilled or neglected action in the past: He looks very ill. He should have stayed at home.

b) a negative sentence means that an undesirable action was carried out: They shouldn’t have concealed it from us.

§ 2 Must, should, and ought to in comparison

Notice some peculiarities in the shades of meanings of must, should, ought to:

1. Should/ought to express obligation or advisability. Must in this meaning sounds too forceful and peremptory: You should do it at once. You ought to do it at once. You must do it at once.

2. Should / ought to + Perfect Infinitive show that the action has not been fulfilled though it was desirable: You should have helped him. (But you didn’t do that)

3. Must + Perfect Infinitive denotes conclusions about the past: He must have come by taxi. (I suppose)

§3 Emotional should: in subordinate clauses,

emphatic constructions

1. Should is found in:

a) following the principal clause with it as a formal subject after such expressions as (it is wonderful, absurd, monstrous, natural, old, queer, strange, terrible, etc): It is absurd that such things should happen to me. It was strange that he should be asking those questions

b) beginning with why: I don’t know why we shouldn’t make friends.

NOTE: It is impossible to use ought to for emotional colouring.

2. Learn some set phrases with should:

E x e r c i s e s

1. Comment on the meaning of the modal verbs should/ought to. Translate the sentences.

  1. What do you think we ought to do about babies? – asking for an opinion about something.

  2. He ought to be in looking after his mother.

  3. I should have hated that, but I enjoyed going there so awfully.

  4. You shouldn’t go out without an overcoat.

  5. If you are interested in pictures you should look in at the British Museum.

  6. Why should I tell you a lie?

  7. Why shouldn’t I stay with you?

  8. Why, where should I be without you?

  9. Why in the world, shouldn’t you listen to me?

  10. Should you find it necessary to communicate with me, send a message.

^ 2. Give some advice to a person or express disapproval.

  1. Your friend is always coughing because he smokes too much. – You should stop smoking.

  2. Your friend has a bad toothache.

  3. Your friend rides his bicycle at night without lights on.

  4. Your friend is going to visit Greece.

  5. The bus driver is driving too fast.

  6. The tourists are discussing their further rout of the trip too loudly.

  7. Two girls are arguing about the history of Westminster Abbey.

3. Complete these sentences.

  1. I don’t suppose you’ll see Tom this evening but if you should see him, can you ask him to phone me?

  2. I don’t think Ann will arrive before I get home but …

  3. I don’t think there will be any letters for me while I’m away but …

  4. I don’t suppose you’ll need any help but …

  5. The doctor recommended that …

  6. Our advertising manager insisted that …

  7. The museum guide suggested that …

  8. The landlord demanded that …

4. Complete these sentences using the modal verbs must/should/ought to.

  1. Doctor! I think the patient stopped breathing. You must come immediately!

  2. I don’t think anything’s seriously wrong with the patient, but you … call in and see her if you have time.

  3. Jeanie’s got a cold. I don’t think she … go to school today.

  4. What Jeanie has is infectious. She … go to school.

  5. If she has a high temperature, she … stay in bed until the doctor comes.

  6. It won’t do her any harm to go out, but she … wear an overcoat, there’s a cold wind.

  7. If a woman is expecting a child, and hasn’t had German measles, she … be vaccinated against it because it can carry a serious risk.

  8. It’s not compulsory for children to be vaccinated against measles but in my opinion they … be.

^ 5. Respond to the statements with constructive suggestions, using the words in brackets.

  1. John’s very overweight. (diet) He ought to go on a diet.

  2. The train leaves in less than half an hour. (hurry up)

  3. My handbag’s been stolen. (report to police)

  4. We’re going to Africa on a safari holiday. (buy a good camera)

  5. She stayed in the sun too long and was badly sunburst. (be more sensible)

  1. You shall sit by me, and amuse me.

  2. Now you shall look at it face to face.

  3. Shall I leave the things here, sir?

  4. I made a mistake about this afternoon. It shall not occur again.

  5. If I come there you shall know about it.

  6. You shall not slip through my fingers!

  7. “ You shall see that Chris yourself tonight.”

6. Complete these sentences using the modal verbs should or have to with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.

  1. We should have called (call) on him yesterday, but we were too busy as we … (attend) an extra meeting. – We should have called on him yesterday, but we were too busy as we had to attend an extra meeting.

  2. I … not (tell) him this news; he was so much upset, but I really … (do) so, for the circumstances demanded that.

  3. You … (see) him dance! You’ve missed a lot. I … (take) you to the concert.

  4. It was very hard work but we … (do) it.

  5. The mother … ( punish) the boy severely to make him understand he was not right.

  6. Although it was very painful for the mother but she … (punish) the boy.

7. Translate from Russian into English.

  1. Вы, должно быть, ошибаетесь, на двадцать пятой странице нет таких слов.

  2. Вам следует помочь ей, она ведь очень устала.

  3. Вам бы следовало сделать то, что я вам говорила, тогда вы не оказались бы в таком глупом положении.

  4. Вы должны были мне сказать, что вы больны.

  5. Вы не должны позволять ей читать в сумерки, она может испортить глаза.

  6. Я вас, должно быть, неправильно понял и поэтому пришел так рано.

  7. Почему я должен хвалить вашу работу? Она неудовлетворительна.

  8. Почему я должен принять его предложение? Я не согласен с ним.

  9. С какой стати я должен ему помогать?!

  10. Ради чего я буду разговаривать с ней?

  11. И зачем ты поедешь туда?

  12. Это лекарство следует держать в холодном месте.

  13. Вам не следует разочаровываться.

  14. Вам следовало бы прекратить спор, как только поняли, что вы неправы.

  15. Вам следует еще раз обдумать это предложение, прежде чем отвергнуть его.

  16. Он должен был бы отказаться от приглашения, если он был так занят.

Unit 10 S h a l l

Shall is found to express obligation, warning, promise, threat. It is also used to ask for instructions.

1. Shall is used in interrogative sentences with the first and third persons meaning obligation or asking for instructions: Shall I get you some coffee? Who shall answer the phone? It is rendered in Russian as: Принести вам еще кофе? Кому отвечать по телефону? Shall I open the window? What on earth shall we do?

2. Shall is used to express obligation but it is always combined with the function of an auxiliary verb of the future tense. Shall occurs in affirmative and negative sentences: We shall be landing in Paris in 10 minutes. I shall miss him terribly. The verb is found with the second and the third person expressing promise, threat, warning. You shall have my answer tomorrow. You shall stay just where you are! He shall do as I say! I want to know all the gossip , all the scandal. – You shall dear, you shall.

3. Shall is often used with third person to refer to duties: The officer shall be responsible for the fleet of lorries. The President shall hold office for 5 years.

E x e r c i s e s

^ 1. Comment on the meaning of the verb shall. Translate the sentences.

  1. The victory of peace can and shall be won. There shall be no war! Shall expresses promise it is always combined with the function of an auxiliary verb of the future tense

  2. He shall do it whether he wants it or not.

  3. What shall I do with it?

  4. You shall answer for it!

  5. The senior manager shall be responsible for this department.

  6. It was an incredible feat, one which I shall never forget.

  7. A player shall not lift the seam of the ball for any reason.

  8. Shall we sort you out and make you more comfy?

  9. The Prime Minister shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen in this field.

  10. Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.

  11. I shall be calling fore you at seven o’clock.

  12. The editor’s decision is final and shall evermore remain so.

2. Make offers for the following situations. Think of your own situations.

  1. An old lady clearly wants to put her large suitcase on the luggage rack.

  2. A young woman is shivering and the window is open.

  3. Your friend accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor.

3. Make suggestions to a friend for the following situations. You feel like ...

  1. going for a swim? Shall we go for a swim? Yes, let's./Yes. let's, shall we? No. I'd rather we didn't.

  1. driving to the coast,

  2. having a meal out this evening,

  3. travelling first class,

  4. having a holiday in.

  5. going to the theatre,

  6. visiting an art gallery,

  7. baking a pie,

  8. making a sea voyage,

  9. climbing up the mountain,

  10. calling a taxi,

4. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.

  1. В котором часу мне приходить?

  2. Ты никуда не пойдешь, пока не сделаешь уроки!

  3. Не двигайся! Стой, где стоишь!

  4. Эти глупцы будут делать то, что я им велю.

  5. Сегодня ты выслушаешь меня, я не дам тебе уйти.

  6. Они за всё мне ответят, вот увидишь!

  7. Мне принести ещё кофе? – Да, спасибо.

  8. Кому делать доклад? Кто будет отвечать за все?

  9. Что же мы теперь будем делать!?

  10. Финансовым отделом будет руководить Г-н Смитс.

Unit 11 Will and would

Will and would are considered to be the forms of the same verb. Its original meaning is volition. However, in some of their meanings the use of will is equal only to would which denotes an actual fact in the past; in other meanings will is found alongside would which expresses unreality in the present or serves as a more polite form of will.

§ 1 Will and Would for characteristic habit,

criticizing, natural tendency, and requests

1. Will/would describe characteristic habit/behaviour or is used to criticise a person’s characteristic behaviour: In fine weather he will often sit in the sun for hours. Marjory will keep leaving her things all over the floor.

Moreover, would is used with the same meaning as used to. It refers to repeated actions and events in the past: When we were children we would go skating every winter.

2. Will/would are found to express natural tendency: Water will boil at 100°С. I planted a yucca plant last year but it wouldn’t grow because it didn’t get enough sun.

3. Will/would + not are used as a refusal to perform an action: Drink your milk, Jeremiah! – I won’t. The car wouldn’t start this morning.

4. Will/would are found as requests, orders, offers: Will you send me the bill, please? Would you be quiet!


^ 1. Comment on the meaning of the verb will and would. Translate the sentences.

  1. You will not discuss this matter with anyone.

  2. Will you drive me home?

  3. He kicked pushed that door. It wouldn’t open.

  4. He will leave his socks lying all over the place and it drives me mad.

  5. The show will be open to the public at 2 p.m.

  6. Won’t you stay here and have supper with us?

  7. All right, I will forgive you.

  8. My car won’t start!

2. Make requests for the following situations. You want someone to

  1. hold the door open for you. Will/would you hold the door open for me?

  2. dial a number for you

  3. translate a letter for you

  4. deliver some flowers for you.

  5. show the way to the station.

3. Use a phrase with will or would in place of the words in italics.

  1. She always used to tell us a story before we went to bed. She would always tell us a story before we went to bed.

  2. She still tells us a story occasionally.

  3. They only used to discuss family matters with the priest.

  4. He's very good, you know. He plays with that toy for hours on end.

  5. When he needed extra money, he used to work overtime.

  6. She doesn't always tell the truth, I'm afraid.

§ 2 Will and would for intention, insistence,

certainty or supposition

1. Will/would are used with the first person to express will, intention or determination: I say I will do anything for him. We thought we wouldn’t interfere.

2. Will/would are served to imply insistence or consent in if-clauses: ‘It’s about forty minutes’ walk from here and if you will come now I’ll go with you. If you would help me I should make another attempt.

NOTE: Will is not normally used after if-clauses: If the weather is fine, we will go to the bank of the river (conditional sentence).

3. Will may convey the meaning of certainty or supposition about present or future situations: Don’t phone them now. – They will be having dinner. This will be the school, I believe.

Will + Perfect Infinitive expresses certainty about the past: We can’t go and see them now. They will have gone to bed.

4. Would is found to express that something was to be expected. The meaning is rather sarcastical: ‘Paula is very brave.’ ‘Yes, she would be brave.’ I don’t approve of his decision.’ ‘No, you wouldn’t.’ It is rendered in Russian as: этого и следовало ожидать.

Learn some set phrases:

E x e r c i s e s

^ 1. Comment on the meaning of the verb will and would. Translate the sentences.

  1. If you overcook the pancakes they will be difficult to roll.

  2. I will say no more on this matter, important though it was

  3. As many as ten million children will have been infected with the virus by the end of the decade.

  4. The holidays will have done him the world of good.

  5. He expressed the hope that on Monday elementary schools would be reopened.

  6. It was half past nine; her mother would be annoyed because she was so late.

  7. They said they would give the police their full cooperation.

2. Emma and Sadie are students. They've both got exams tomorrow. Complete their conversation using a modal verb + be + the -ing form of each verb in brackets. Use the modal verbs ought to, might, must and would.

Sadie: – You (1) (do) some work. You ought to be doing some work, Emma.

Emma:  Hello, Sadie. Aren't you doing any work? You (2) (revise) for the exams.

Sadie : – I (3) (read) my notes if I had them, but I've lost them.

^ Emma:  Good Lord! How awful! Do you want to look at mine?

Sadie:  No, thanks. It's okay. Don't worry, Emma. Exams aren't important.

Emma: Not important! You (4) (joke)! I (look) everywhere if my notes were lost.

Sadie:  Well, I'll probably find them before tomorrow.

Emma: Have you seen Lisa? She's got a book of mine.

Sadie: She was in here not long ago. Perhaps she's outside. She (5) (sit) in the garden.

Emma: – I'll go and have a look. Then I (6) (go). I have to get to the library before it closes.

Sadie:  What are you doing tonight, Emma?

Emma:  Revising, of course. Aren't you?

Sadie:  I (7) (play) tennis with Rebecca if the weather stays fine.

^ 3. Oral Activity.

Say what you would be doing at the moment if today were a different day of the week. Find out what the other members of the class would be doing (or might be doing) if it were a Saturday or a Sunday.

4. Put in appropriate forms of the past used to, will, would. Alternatives are possible. Retell the story.


The thing I remember most about my childhood was my visits to my aunt Charlotte in her lovely country house. She (1) (be) used to be /was a remarkable woman by any standards. She (2) (be) really skilled at water-divining and she (3) (find) water on the most unpromising bits of land. The farmers (4) (love) her, especially as she (5) (never accept) money for water-divining. “Water (6) (always find) its own level” she (7) (say) and “I know exactly where that level is.” “Water-divining is a gift from God and you don't accept payment for that.” She had a gift for noticing changes in the weather, too. “It’s going to rain soon,” she (8) (say). “I can feel it in my bones,” and she (9) (always be) right! In her later years, she developed a bad back and (10) (often visit) her osteopath. She (11) (never tired) of telling us that her osteopath (12) (say) as he massaged her painful back. “It’s going to rain, Charlotte, I can feel it in your bones!”

^ 5. Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs shall/will or should/would.

  1. Can you walk as far as the car or shall I bring it round?

  2. I … not come down with you. I … go home.

  3. If I’ve got him, they can’t take him. He … not go. I … not let him.

  4. You’ve asked for my opinion and by God you … have it.

  5. No harm … be done to your child. I … see to it.

  6. If you … not take any steps you … never got rid of the malady.

  7. When he grew blind he … sit hour after hour in those two rooms that he had painted, looking at his works with sightless eyes.

  8. I let the young man to go where he … with my box and money.

  9. My aunt … not hear of staying to dinner, lest she … by any chance fail to arrive at home.

6. Translate the following sentences into English.

  1. Вы этого не сделаете. Запомните это!

  2. Я сделаю эту работу к сроку, хотя бы мне и пришлось не спать всю ночь.

  3. Магазин, должно быть, еще открыт. Если вы поторопитесь, вы успеете купить хлеб.

  4. Он сказал, что ему придется уехать через несколько дней, но мы и слушать не хотели.

  5. Не старайтесь доказать ему, что вы правы; его никогда нельзя убедить. Он очень упрямый.

  6. Вы ответите за ваши действия.

  7. Вам придется держать экзамен еще раз. Вам надо обратить большое внимание на грамматику.

  8. Какое упражнение мне читать? – Можете начать с любого.

  9. Я полагаю, это и есть твой дом!

  10. Я не допущу, чтобы вы разговаривали со мной в таком тоне.

  11. Дети – всегда дети.

  12. Я скорее сделаю это сама, чем оставлю это своей сестре.

Review Exercises

1. Peter, Jan and Lima are foreign students at an English-speaking university. Put each verb in brackets into the simple present, simple past or present perfect. What rules do governments usually make about people entering their country? Are there different rules for tourists, for students, and for people who want to live and work there? Discuss with other members of your class.


 I'll be sad to leave here. But I (1) (have to) leave at the end of my course.


 I still don't know if I can stay longer or not. I (2) (not be able to) make any plans during the last two years, Lima. My problem was getting in here. I (3) (have to) get a visa before I left home. I wanted to come here a year earlier, but I (4) (not allowed to)


 Money is a problem, too. I (5) (not be allowed to) work since I came here.


 Ever since I came here, I (6) (have to) report to the police every week.

2. Choose the most suitable words underlined.

  1. I don’t think you could/should tell anyone yet.

  2. I couldn’t/shouldn’t possibly leave without pain.

  3. That mustn’t/can’t be the place Patrick told us about.

  4. There are times when the traffic here can/could be really heavy.

  5. We are enjoying our holiday though the weather could/must be better.

  6. You couldn’t/shouldn’t really be sitting here.

  7. You could/may be older than me, but that doesn’t mean you are cleverer.

  8. I might/should suppose your job is rather difficult.

  9. No member of the association must/shall remove official documents from these premises without written permission.

  10. You may/can be in charge, but it doesn’t give you the right to be rude.

  11. Although I tried hard I couldn’t/mightn’t lift the suitcase.

  12. This beach should be/shall be deserted.

  13. I think you should/must go to Brighton for a week.

3. Oral Activity

Imagine that tomorrow you plan to go on a 15-mile walk in the country with three or four other people in your class. Discuss with them what you ought to wear and what you ought to take with you. Give reasons for your suggestions.

4. Put in will have to, must, having to, has to, should, had to, have to, should have. Retell the story.


The Post Office in Britain is famous for getting letters and parcels to their destinations. The problem is that we the public (1) have to observe the rules. For example, we (2) ...... put a stamp on a letter. If we don’t, the recipient (3) ....... pay double. We often see the sign ALL LETTERS (4) ......... BE CORRECTLY ADDRESSED. These days, this means (5) ......... use postcodes. If you didn’t use a postcode, it’s no good complaining that your letter (6) ......... arrived sooner. Parcels are a problem because they (7) ........ be correctly packaged. If Aunt Sophia is going to send you a jar of your favourite jam, she (8) ........ wrap it up well. The most important thing we (9) ........ do is to address our letters and parcels legibly and correctly. This means clear handwriting and correct spelling. What we (10) ........ do and what we actually do are often miles apart. Recently, the Post Office (11) …….. deliver a letter which showed a name followed by the word ARIJABA. What is this, do you think? Arabic? Hindustani? Wrong both times! Say it out loud and you will see it is just plain (misspelt!) English: HARWICH HARBOUR!

5. Complete the sentences with appropriate modals (can, must, may).

  1. It’s a beautiful dress. It ... (cost) a lot of money.

  2. There’s been a terrible accident. We ... (ring) for an ambulance.

  3. You ... (eat) between meals. You’ll get fat.

  4. You ... (let) the children get their hands on those bottles. The contents are poisonous.

  5. You ... (finish) the job this evening. There is no hurry.

  6. I ... (go) to work by bus but since the fares went up I’ve been going on foot.

  7. He had to go by train because he ... (not afford) the air fare.

  8. You’d better take an umbrella. It’s cloudy and it ... (rain).

  9. I think we’ve probably missed the train but we ... (catch) it if we run all the way to the station.

  10. Anyone ... (make) a mistake. No one is perfect.

  11. She ... (not take) the money. She wasn’t in the office that day.

  12. They are all taking photographs of the person getting off the plane. It ... (be) someone famous.

  13. I’m sorry. I don’t seem to have brought the papers with me. I ... (leave) them in my office.

  14. I don’t think they know one another but they come from the same town, so they ... (meet) when they were children.

^ 6. Choose the sentence closest in meaning to the sentences given.

  1. It’s possible that we’ll know the answers tomorrow.

  1. We may know all the answers tomorrow.

  2. We should know all the answers tomorrow.

  1. I don’t think you should ring him now. It’s rather late.

  1. You might not ring him now. It’s rather late.

  2. You’d better not ring him now. It’s rather late.

  1. You needn’t come if you don’t want to.

  1. You won’t come if you don’t want to.

  2. You don’t have to come if you don’t want to.

  1. I think it’s wrong for you to work so hard.

  1. You don’t have to work so hard.

  2. You shouldn’t work so hard.

  1. I hope one day we can meet again in more favourable circumstances.

  1. It’s possible that we’ll meet again in more favourable circumstances.

  2. I hope to meet you again in more favourable circumstances.

  1. In the end we succeeded in communicating with sign language.

  1. In the end we might communicate with sign language.

  2. In the end we were able to communicate with sign language.

7. Rewrite each of the following sentences using the modal verb should and one of the words listed: important, normal, odd, insisted, warned, incredible.

  1. The new trainer wants to hand in his notice already. I just don’t believe it.

  2. Some students tend to feel a little homesick in their first week here. I can understand that.

  3. Why has he complained now, right at the end of his course? I just can’t work it out.

  4. Children must be taught the difference between right and wrong. I believe that strongly.

  5. I wonder why she left without saying anything. I’d really like to know.

  6. ‘Don’t let your feelings run away with you, will you?’ said the youth club leader.

  7. ‘We simply must go to the police about this latest attack’, said a bystander.

8. Adam, Lisa, Don and Melanie are students. They were on their way to visit some friends last week in Adam's car when it broke down. Complete the conversation by putting in one of the following modal verbs: can, can't, could, must, mustn't, needn't, ought to, should, might, 'II, will, won't, shall, would. (Sometimes more than one answer is correct.)

Activity: Act out the conversation in groups of four.


 What's the matter? Why have you stopped?


 There’s something wrong. It isn’t going properly.


 Let’s have a look.


 We (1) ... be out of petrol, I suppose.


 We (2) ... be out of petrol. We only got some half an hour ago.


 Well, if there is something wrong, (3) ... you put it right, do you think?


 Give me a chance. I don’t know what the trouble is yet.


 Look at this steam. The engine (4) ... be too hot.


 Don’t take the cap off the radiator. You (5) ... do that. You (6) ... get boiling water all over you.


 If it’s too hot, we (7) ... have to wait until it cools down.


 And how long (8) ... that take?


 We (9) ... wait about half an hour before we go on.


– I suppose there (10) ... be something else wrong with it.


– We passed a garage about a mile back. I suppose they (11) ... come and have a look at it if we ask them.


 The car (12) ... be all right. Our local garage has just serviced it. I paid £30 for a full service.


 You (13) ... worry. I’m sure it’s just got too hot. Let’s wait a bit.


 We (14) ... be late now, I expect.


 There’s some coffee in the back of the car. (15) ... we have some while we’re waiting? There are some sandwiches, too.


I’m starving. I (16) ... have something to eat.


– (17) ... you like a sandwich, Lisa? Lisa No, thanks. I (18) ... eat bread. I’m on a diet.


 We (19) ... phone Matthew if we’re going to be late.


 We (20) ... be very late, I don’t think.


 You (21) ... buy a new car, Adam.


 Well, it (22) ... be nice if I had the money. But I’m afraid we (23) ... have to put up with this old thing for a little longer.

9. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.

  1. Вам следовало бы принять это предложение, вы сейчас в очень трудном положении.

  2. Боюсь, что вам придется согласиться на наших условиях, у вас нет другого выхода.

  3. Наверное, она перепутала адреса, поэтому она опоздала.

  4. Если бы мы не вмешались, они, возможно, поссорились бы.

  5. Ты, наверное, испугал ее своими угрозами.

  6. Я сделаю тебя счастливой, ты будешь делать, что хочешь, тратить, сколько угодно.

  7. Доктор велел ей лежать, но она и слышать об этом не хотела.

  8. Право же, вы могли бы подумать и о других.

  9. Прекрати шуметь! В комнате больной!

  10. С какой стати я буду это делать! Я не одна в команде!

  11. Вам следовало бы иметь хорошую память.

  12. Он предложил, чтобы собрание перенесли на пять часов.

  13. Ах, если бы я могла все предвидеть.

  14. Приди он к нам еще раз, мы бы и видеть его не хотели.

  15. Моя машина никак не заводится!

  16. Неужели он отказался тебе помочь? Я о нем была другого мнения.

  17. Должно быть, ты перепутала флакончики. Ты должна быть всегда внимательна.

  18. Замок по-прежнему не работает, ты бы давно мог его починить.

  19. Как мне быть? Как поступить?

  20. Она будет меня слушать, теперь, когда у нее никого больше нет кроме меня.

Progress Test

Unit 2

1. Supply the modal verbs can, could, to be able to, or managed to.

  1. A good 1500-metre runner … run the race in under four minutes.

  1. Bill is so unfit he … run at all!

  2. Our baby is only nine months and he … stand up.

  3. When I was younger, I … speak Italian much better than I … now.

  4. …she speak German well? No, she … speak German at all.

  5. He … draw or paint at all when he was a boy, bat now he is a famous artist.

  6. After weeks of training, I … swim a length of the baths underwater.

  7. It took a long time, but in the end Tony … save enough to buy his car.

  8. Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? No, I … get any.

  9. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the forth day they saw them and … reach them without too much trouble.

2. Rewrite these sentences using the modal verb can/could.

  1. Do you see that man over there?

  2. I smell something burning.

  3. I understood what he said.

  4. Did you understand what he said?

  5. I don’t hear anything!

^ 3. Rewrite these sentences so that each sentence contains the modal verb can and the meaning remains the same.

  1. I knew how to skate before I was five.

  2. I hope one day we will meet again in more favourable circumstances.

  3. It is still very cold here in March.

  4. Some supermarket beef tends to be rather tough.

  5. In the end we managed to communicate with sign language.

  6. If you don’t feel you’ll make a contribution, just say so.

^ 4. Fill in the gaps using the modal verbs can or to be able to.

  1. They asked if they … go.

  2. I … solve her problems for her.

  3. I’d like to … write as well as that.

  4. … you speak Spanish?

  5. I might … help you.

Unit 3

^ 5. Insert the modal verbs may or can into each gap.

  1. The engines don’t seem to be working properly. There … be some ice in them.

  2. Planes flying in cold countries in winter … have problems because of ice on the wings.

  3. Both engines have failed. I’ll try to find a place to land. We haven’t much chance of surviving, but we … be lucky.

  4. The engines were not working properly. The pilot said he thought there … be some ice on the wings.

  5. He said there wasn’t much chance of surviving, but we … be lucky.

  6. He told me that planes flying in cold countries in winter … have problems because of ice on the wings.

^ 6. Make up remarks using the modal verb may in the right form which express a reproach.

  1. to a friend who forgot to have the prescription made up on the way home.

  2. to a friend who didn’t warn you about a change in the time-table.

  3. to a friend who didn’t come to see you when you were ill.

  4. to a friend who promised to buy you some oranges at the market.

  5. to a person who is not polite to the aged.

  6. to a person who interferes in your affairs.

^ 7. Change the following responses using the modal verb may/might to express supposition implying uncertainty.

  1. Have you found the registration form?

  2. Why didn’t Jane come? She did promise to turn up, didn’t she? ~ Possibly she went to a dentist to have her bad tooth filled.

  3. You do look thin and pale why? ~ Perhaps, I have been keeping to a strict diet of salads and very little meat too long.

  4. Why did that patient ask the dentist to pull out his bad tooth? ~ Maybe his pain has been bothering him too long.

Unit 4

^ 8. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the modal verb must and the meaning remains the same.

  1. I am sure he has got all he needed. Did you see how triumphant he was?

  2. She hasn’t come. Probably, she is ill.

  3. The boy was evidently reading something funny. He was smiling all the time.

  4. Probably, the hotel rates are very high in summer.

  5. Probably, Jim is taken ill with flue.

  6. They have most likely not realised what opportunity they were losing.

^ 9. Paraphrase the sentences to express supposition implying assurance with reference to the future.

  1. He will certainly put up at a hotel. – He is certain to put up at a hotel.

  2. I’m almost sure they will come and see me here.

  3. Certainly you will see the ceremony with your own eyes.

  4. I’m sure Penny will be x-rayed tomorrow.

  5. ‘Of course, you’ll see Westminster Abbey and Westminster Palace with its largest clock in the country and the famous bell Big Ben.’

  6. He will certainly give you a piece of advice.

  7. I’m not sure they will visit London next year.

10. Complete these sentences with the modal verbs (must or may).

  1. Park notice: All dogs … be kept on leads.

  2. If you said that, he … be very offended.

  3. Warning: No part of this book … be reproduced without the publisher’s permission.

  4. … I see your passport, please?

  5. Farmers … get up early.

  6. … I play the guitar right now?

Unit 5

^ 11. Replace didn’t need to with needn’t +Perfect Infinitive where it is possible.

  1. It is sweet of you, but you really didn’t need to buy me flowers.

  2. It’s a good job we didn’t need to be here earlier.

  3. It was strange that we didn’t need to show our passports.

  4. You didn’t need to come and pick me up; I could have got a taxi.

  5. There was a sofa in the other room; you didn’t need to sleep on the floor.

  6. I didn’t need to use cash; I had my credit card with me after all.

Unit 7

^ 12. Explain the difference in meaning between the two pairs.

  1. a) The plane was not to take off at night as the weather was too bad.

b) The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad.

  1. a) There was to be an interesting concert last night, but I didn’t feel well and had to stay at home.

b) There was to have been an interesting concert last night, but the singer fell ill and the concert had to be postponed.

Unit 8

13. Fill in the gaps using the modal verbs must, have to, to be to.

  1. I … be late for work tomorrow, because I have a lot to do.

  2. I … get up early tomorrow because it’s a holiday.

  3. You … come to the station to meet me. I could have got a taxi.

  4. I wondered what … to happen to us.

  5. We agreed that the one who came first … to reserve seats.

  6. You … take the medicine until your cough is cured.

  7. It looks like raining. You … take your raincoat.

Unit 10

14. Complete the following sentences using the modal verb should.

  1. ‘Why don’t you go for a holiday?’ ~ He suggested that …

  2. ‘Stay in bed until I tell you to get up!’ ~ She ordered that …

  3. ‘Don’t work too hard.’ ~ She advised that …

  4. ‘I I don’t want to do it! It’s not my business.’ ~ Why …

  5. ‘I have never heard from him!’ ~ How …

  6. Tell her about that accident, please! ~ If you …

Unit 9, 10, 11

15. Insert the modal verbs shall/should or will/would.

  1. All the candidates … remain in their seats until the end of the examination.

  2. I… let him do that again! (negative)

  3. He … smoke when I’m trying to eat.(negative)

  4. This car … start and run on leaded petrol! (negative)

  5. She … always try to help you.

  6. … you open the door for me?

  7. He … do as I say!

  8. What on earth … we do here?

  9. ‘But that it … have been you who saw me drunk!’

  10. Terry was anxious that I … stay to dinner.

  11. Ethel … talk about what doesn’t concern her!

  12. Was it possible that Dick … turn his thoughts from his work?

16. Translate from Russian into English.

  1. Ему не следовало бы заставлять нас ждать так долго!

  2. Этот вопрос уже давно следовало бы решить.

  3. Вам следовало бы уделять больше времени этой работе. Она очень важна.

  4. Он предложил, чтобы собрание назначили на 5 часов.

  5. С какой стати я должен это делать?

  6. Без несчастных случаев дело не обходится.

Total: 100/____



Units 3-4

1. Choose the correct word or phrase to fill the spaces.

1) Mother will be very tired if she ..… home by train. .

A) will go

B) shall go

C) goes

D) went

2) If I ..… her address, I would give it to you.

A) knew

B)had known

C) know

D) shall know

3) If I were taller, I ..... a policeman.

^ A) became

B) become

C) would become

D) shall become

4) If I tell you a secret, ...... not to tell it to anyone else?

^ A) will promise

B) promise

C) would promise

D) promised

5) Unless you ..... more careful, you will have an accident.

A) will be

B) shall be

C) are

D) were

6) … he arrives, everyone must stand.

A) until

B) when

^ C) supposing

D) as long

7) If you … away, please write to me.

A) go

B) will go

C) went

D) have gone

8) If I … Jack, I'll tell him the news.

A) saw

B) have seen

C) see

D) shall see

9) … you had a baby girl. What would you call her?

^ A) supposing

B) in case

C) when

D) until

10) Peter … his exams if he studies hard.

A) passed

B) will pass

C) passes

D) is passing

2. Choose the correct answer.

  1. If I see/will see Mike I tell/will tell him everything.

  2. If you don't hurry/will hurry, you will miss/miss the train.

  3. If I go/would go to the seaside, I'll take/take my son with me.

  4. If Mike receives/has received the telegram I'm sure he phones/will phone you tomorrow.

  5. As soon as/before you hear the alarm, run for the exit.

  6. His French won't improve provided/unless he studies with me.

  7. If you phone/will phone me I will pick/pick you up.

  8. If she changed/would change her job she earned/would earn more.

  9. If I lived/would live in Spain I did/would do a lot of sunbathing.

  10. If I stay/will stay late I always get/will get a taxi.

3. Choose between Conditional Type I and Type II to complete the dialogue.


Hey, Dad! What (21) … (you/say) if I (22) … (tell) you I was saving up for a motor-bike? A Triumph 750. I saw a new model in the Superbike Store.


I (23) … (say) you (24) … (be) mad! Motor-bikes are killer machines as far as I'm concerned. I (25) … (think) about it carefully if I (26) … (be) you.


Why? Why couldn't I have my bike if I (27) … (save) the money? You (28) … (not be) pleased to see me with a bike like that?


No, I (29) … (not be). If you (30) … (plan) to die young, then you (31) … (have better) go ahead and buy it. If I (32) … (have) the choice, I (33) … (not go) near a motorbike. I (34) … (buy) myself a cheap little car instead. I (35) … (feel) much safer on four wheels!


Well, I (36) … (not buy) a car even if you (37) … (give) me the money! Cars are so middle-aged and boring. I just (38) … (not enjoy) driving around on four wheels if I (39) … (be able) to afford to buy two. It's super fast.


Is that all you think about? Speed? Your mother (40) … (be) really worried if she (41) … (know) you were planning to get a motor-bike. I (42) … (not like) to say how she (43) … (go) to feel about the idea.


I (44) … (not say) any more if I (45) … (be) you because I've just bought it on Hire Purchase. If you (46) … (care) to take a look outside, you (47) … (see) it parked in the front drive. You (48) … (like) to come for a ride on it?

Unit 5

4. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

  1. Jessica was here not long ago. If you … (come round) earlier, you … (see) her.

  2. I'm so glad that you took me to your friend's party. If we … (not go) there, I … (never meet) Ann.

  3. They've been married for 25 years now but I don't think she … (marry) him if she … (know) what a selfish man he was.

  4. Fortunately, the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. It … (be) a disaster if it … (happen) in the middle of the day.

  5. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. If it … (be) a nice day, we … (go) for a picnic.

  6. If you … (come) to the theatre yesterday, you … (enjoy) the play.

  7. She … (get) a promotion last year, if she … (not argue) with the boss.

  8. If only I … (know) you already had tickets, I … (not get) any for you.

  9. The accident was Ann's fault. She was driving too close to the car in front. If she … (be) further away he … (be able) to stop in time.

  10. We were traveling with false passports. That was the trouble. If our passports … (be) all right we … (not be) arrested.

5. Complete the following sentences.

  1. We would have stayed in Moscow longer … .

  2. I wouldn't have been so angry when we got there … .

  3. If I had read more … .

  4. If you had known about the party yesterday … .

  5. They would have got tickets for you … .

6. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Yesterday the famous bank robber, Fingers Smith, robbed another bank in the center of town. As usual, he only stole 10 pounds. If he (64) … (leave) any clues, he (65) … (be) in prison now, but he is too much clever. He disconnected the security cameras; if he (66) … (not/do) that, the police (67) … (have) him on film now. The strange thing is, Fingers doesn't seem to be interested in the money; if he (68) … (be), he (69) … (can/steal) thousands of pounds by now. The police are determined to catch him, and the Chief is confident that they will. He says that if he (70) … (think) they weren't going to arrest Fingers eventually, he (71) … (leave) the police force long ago.

Unit 7

7. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Some sentences require a negative.

  1. Peter is always late. If only … (turn up) on time for a change.

  2. If only … (lose) all my money. Now I'm broke.

  3. Bruce wishes he … (have) more money so he could buy a new sweater.

  4. I wish it … (snow) now that it's Christmas.

  5. I wish you … (keep) your mouth shut yesterday. Now Mary knows everything.

  6. Of course Tom wishes he … (come) with us to Paris, but he has to stay here and work.

  7. I wish we … (go) to the match on Saturday, but we're visiting my uncle instead.

  8. I wish you … (do) that. It annoys me.

  9. I wish you … (stop) watching TV while I am talking to you.

  10. I wish … (come) so we could go off to the seaside.

8. Translate into English.

  1. Хорошо бы завтра не было дождя.

  2. Если бы ты позвонил мне вчера, я бы взяла твои книги.

  3. Я позволю своему сыну поехать туда, если он бросит эту идею.

  4. Жаль, что ты этого не понимаешь.

  5. На твоём месте, я не придавала бы этой проблеме такое огромное значение.

  6. Жаль, что сегодня так холодно.

  7. Если бы вы приняли лекарство, вы бы были сейчас здоровы.

  8. Мы посидим в кафе, пока они будут ходить по магазинам.

  9. Он бы не провалил вступительный экзамен, если бы усерднее готовился к нему.

  10. Я пошлю ему телеграмму, если он завтра не приедет.

  11. Хорошо бы он уже пришёл.

  12. Я буду обращаться к нему по этому вопросу до тех пор, пока не добьюсь своего.

  13. Он пожалел, что не знает адреса девушки.

  14. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы никогда не стал разговаривать с ней таким тоном.

  15. Если бы она не любила его, она бы не поехала с ним.

  16. Он выступал первым. Ах, если бы вы слышали, как он говорил.

  17. Теперь они смеются надо мной. Ах, если бы я не показывал им эти стихи.

  18. Если бы ты вовремя предупредил меня, я бы никогда не пошла туда.

  19. Жаль, что они расстались. Они были прекрасной парой.

Total: 100/ ________

Unit 1 The Indicative, Imperative,

and Subjunctive Moods.

§ 1 Mood. General Information

Mood is the form of the verb that shows in what relation to reality the speaker places the action expressed by the predicate verb.

There are the following three moods in English:

The Indicative Mood presents actions as real facts: We are happy. No one has washed the dishes yet. They invited me to the party.

The Indicative Mood has the categories of tense, aspect, voice, number and person (see Part II): Jane hasn't been here for a year. He is going to college. He can't be relied on.

The Imperative Mood expresses a command or request. The verb in the Imperative Mood has practically only one form which coincides with the stem of the verb: Introduce me to your friend. Don't speak to me in such a tone!

The verb let is used, as a rule, with imperative first and third person expressions, as Let us assemble in the hall! or Let every one sign his name.

The Subjunctive Mood of a verb indicates action or state as supposed or imagined or as contrary to the fact:

If only I had much money! (but I don’t have it) – Если бы у меня были (сейчас) деньги! (но у меня их нет)

If only I hadn’t failed my English exam! (but I failed) – Если бы только я не провалил свой экзамен по английскому языку! (но я провалил).

§ 2 The Subjunctive Mood

^ 1. The forms of the Subjunctive Mood.

The most common forms of the Subjunctive Mood may be referred to as the Present Subjunctive, the Past Subjunctive and the Perfect Subjunctive.

The Present Subjunctive Mood has the same form as the Infinitive without to:

Though all the world be false, still will I be true.

In complex sentences after that-clause it may also have the form of the auxiliaries should, would, may (might) or shall (now very seldom) and the Infinitive of the notional verb:

I recommend that the plans (should) be carried through. (The verb should is often omitted).

The Past Subjunctive has the same form as the Past Indefinite, except the verb to be that has the form were for all the persons singular and plural:

I wish he worked harder. (but he doesn’t)

I wish he were less remote.(but he is not)

I wish you were here. (but you are not)

The Perfect Subjunctive has the same forms as the Past Perfect:

If only he had worked harder (but he didn’t)

If I had visited him yesterday! (but I didn’t)

He speaks about it as if he had seen it himself (but he didn’t)

^ 2. The use of the Subjunctive Mood.

The Subjunctive Mood may be used nowadays in simple sentences to express hope, wish or prayer (the Present Subjunctive) as in:

God save the Queen! God forgive you! Manners be hanged!

But mostly the Subjunctive Mood is used in complex sentences:

The judge demands that the prisoner tell the truth.

I insist that he (should) meet me;

If I were young!

I wish I were a gipsy.

I wished he were less remote.

He wished she would stop thanking him.

1) If she were here, you would notice him. (The Past Subjunctive) Если бы она была здесь, она бы заметила его
the if-clause the main clause
2) If we had had a rope, we could have saved him. (The Perfect Если бы у нас (тогда) был канат, Subjunctive) ^ мы бы спасли его the if-clause the main clause

Unit 2 Three Types of Conditional Sentences

1. So, both the Indicative Mood and the Subjunctive Mood are used in conditional sentences to express different types of condition and consequence.

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