§ 10. МНОГОЗНАЧНЫЕ И ТРУДНЫЕ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА СЛОВА - Г. М. Зиборова трудности перевода общественно- политического текста...
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§ 10. МНОГОЗНАЧНЫЕ И ТРУДНЫЕ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА СЛОВА - Г. М. Зиборова трудности перевода общественно- политического текста...


§ 10. МНОГОЗНАЧНЫЕ И ТРУДНЫЕ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА СЛОВА


^ 1. Существительные и прилагательные


Известную трудность при переводе представляют многозначные слова. Полисемантизм вообще характерен для английского языка, и нужно все время иметь в виду, что любое казалось бы хорошо зна­комое слово в зависимости от контекста может иметь совсем иное значение. Так например:

1. power имеет следующие значения: 1) держава, государство; 2) сила, мощь; 3) власть, могущество; 4) (мн. ч.) полномочия; 5) энергия. В сочетании с предлогом in приобретает адвербиальное значение: 1) у власти; 2) в состоянии.


According to the UN Charter the important task of maintaining peace lies mainly with the great powers. В соответствии с Уставом ООН важная задача поддержания мира лежит на великих держа­вах.

They have mastered sufficient sea, air and land power to win back that territory. Они собрали достаточные морские, воздушные и су­хопутные силы, чтобы отвоевать эту территорию.

Who sits in a second chamber is secondary to its functions and powers. Вопрос о том, кто входит во вторую палату [Британского парламента] вторичен по отношению к ее функциям и полномо­чиям.


2. case имеет следующие значения: 1) случай, обстоятельство, положение, дело; 2) факты, доказательства, доводы (в пользу ко­го-л. или чего-л.); 3) судебное дело; 4) (мед.) случай, пациент, ране­ный и ряд других значений. В зависимости от контекста слово case может переводиться также следующими словами: вопрос, момент, прецедент и др. (in case в случае; it is not the case это не так; as was the case как это было).


The executive of the National Union of Steel Metal Workers has passed the case back to the local officials to resolve. Исполком на­ционального союза металлургов вернул дело (вопрос) на рас­смотрение местной администрации.

The case will be tried in the law court next week. Дело будет рас­сматриваться в суде на следующей неделе.

An epidemic of the grippe broke out in England. The first cases were immediately sent to hospital. В Англии вспыхнула эпидемия гриппа. Первых заболевших сразу же отправили в больницу.


3. record имеет следующие значения: 1) запись, летопись, исто­рия; 2) протокол (заседания), официальный документ, запись, от­чет; 3) характеристика, репутация; послужной список; 4) факты, данные; достижения; 5) рекорд, рекордный уровень; 6) грампла­стинка; 7) позиция.


The General Assembly should transmit to the States concerned the record of the discussion of the item at that session. Генеральной Ас­самблее следует передать заинтересованным государствам про­токол обсуждения этого пункта на той сессии.

The delegation wished to go on record that they viewed with great concern this act of overt aggression. Делегация высказала пожела­ние официально зафиксировать свою позицию о том, что она с глубокой озабоченностью рассматривает этот акт открытой аг­рессии.

According to New Orleans police records, they were detained at the request of the FBI Согласно данным (материалам, досье) поли­ции Нового Орлеана, они были задержаны по требованию ФБР.


4. pattern может переводиться на русский язык следующими словами: 1) образец, пример; 2) система; 3) путь; 4) характерное явление, характер; 5) форма, схема, шаблон, модель; 6) формула.


Antitrust experts say that the government is trying to show a pat­tern of illegal behavior by Microsoft over years. Эксперты по анти­монопольной политике говорят, что правительство пытается на примере «Микрософта» показать схему незаконной деятельности компании на протяжении ряда лет.

Turkey's pattern of development since 1948 cannot be explained only as a drive for self-sufficiency. Путь (характер) развития Тур­ции с 1948 года нельзя объяснить одним лишь стремлением к экономической самостоятельности.


5. office может переводиться на русский язык следующими сло­вами: 1) служба, должность; 2) обязанность, долг, функция; 3) власть; 4) аппарат, контора; 5) ведомство, министерство; 6) пост; 7) in office у власти и др.


It is true that much of the political debate in Parliament is a sham fight. It is also true that the real distinction of point of view often seems to be between those in office and those out of office. Действи­тельно, большая часть политических дебатов в Парламенте пред­ставляет собой показную борьбу. Но правда и то, что реальный раздел точек зрения, кажется, проходит между теми, кто у влас­ти, и теми, кто вне ее.

Since he moved to the White House, the President's ^ Office has been radically reorganized. С тех пор как он вступил на пост пре­зидента, вся система аппарата Белого дома была коренным об­разом реорганизована.

The leader of the victorious party is offered the office of Prime Minister. Главе победившей партии предлагают (занять) пост премьер-министра.


6. facilities. Есть целый ряд английских слов, которые не имеют эквивалента в русском языке и поэтому иногда их приходится пере­водить по-разному, в зависимости от контекста, иногда описатель­ным путем. Одним из таких слов является слово facilities, которое обозначает предмет или обстоятельство, совокупность предметов или обстоятельств, помогающих совершить действие. Так например:

facilities for transport средства передвижения; facilities for studies

необходимые помещения, и оборудование, и даже наличие соответ­ствующего времени, необходимого для занятий. Словарь дает сле­дующие значения: 1) благоприятные условия, льготы; 2) оборудова­ние, приспособление, аппаратура; 3) средства обслуживания, удоб­ства. В зависимости от контекста может переводиться и другими словами: возможность, помещение и т. д.


MPs already complain of lack of facilities to do their work while Press and other staff also find they work in overcrowded and unsuitable conditions. Члены парламента уже жалуются на отсут­ствие благоприятных условий для (выполнения) работы; работ­ники печати и другие служащие считают, что они также работа­ют в переполненных помещениях и в плохих условиях.

A more recent project has been the modernization of port facilities and the improvement of natural ports. Более поздний проект преду­сматривает модернизацию оборудования (служб) порта и улуч­шение естественных портов.


7. community имеет следующие значения: 1) община; 2) общест­во; 3) население, группа населения; 4) круги; 5) сообщество, объеди­нение; 6) сотрудничество; 7) общность. Перевод слова зависит от того, в каком словосочетании оно встречается. Например: the interests of the community интересы общества. Black (white) community чернокожее (белое) население, financial (business) community финансовые (деловые) круги, community of goods общ­ность владения имуществом, community of interests общность ин­тересов.

8. public n. 1) народ; 2) публика; 3) общественность; adj. 1) об­щественный; 2) общенародный; 3) публичный, общедоступный; 4) открытый, гласный; 5) государственный, официальный и др. public figure общественный/государственный деятель; public image ре­путация, мнение общественности (о каком-л. деятеле); public li­brary публичная (общедоступная) библиотека; public facilities службы общественного пользования; public officer государствен­ный служащий, чиновник, должностное лицо; public servant долж­ностное лицо; лицо, находящееся на государственной службе; public career политическая карьера; public relations 1) связь (лица, организации) с общественностью, прессой; 2) служба/отдел ин­формации; отдел связи с печатью, пресс-бюро; public servicies социальные службы (здравоохранение, образование) и т. д.


Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

1. As American presidents have understood since Harry Truman de­clined to use nuclear bombs in Korea, legitimising the use of these weap­ons in battle would weaken the taboo that restrains other nuclear powers from using theirs, doing far more to imperil America's global security than to advance it.

2. At present, the Lords has extensive powers which go much further than its self-proclaimed role as a revising chamber.

3. The main reasons for the uncertainty are clear enough. The separa­tion of powers means that President and Congress are elected separately. The federal structure of the huge country means that between presidential elections the local party organizations more or less go their own way.

4. Only when agreement is reached on the role and powers of the second chamber does it make sense to consider its composition.

5. Apart from power in Parliament the other great source of power over people is from those who control the largescale combines and the national Press.

6. With a spirited competition among liberals and conservatives, re­formers and traditionalists the elections in Iran are important because part of the power of the government is going to transfer to the people.

7. China's repeated failure to sustain economic reform and its persis­tent unwillingness to become a status quo power accepting the constraints of interdependence are all failures sustained by a mistaken belief in the correctness of the 1949 revolution (Gerald Segal).

8. He is having to exercise his persuasive powers fully, to prevent the negotiations from falling too far behind the time-table.

9. The balance of power in Europe, maintained for many years, had been shattered in six weeks.

10. The power to gather and disseminate data electronically is grow­ing so fast that it raises an even more unsettling question: in 20 years' time, will there be any privacy left to protect?

11. Last week, friendly talks between the two companies broke off, reportedly over an inability to agree on a power-sharing arrangements between the chief executives.

12. As the last government witness nears the end of his testimony, it is increasingly clear that the government's antitrust case against Microsoft Corporation is an indictment not only of the business practices of the world's dominent software maker but also of its corporate character.

13. The urgency with which the Americans are pressing the case for seaborne deterrent is explicable in terms of the coming Presidential elec­tion campaign.

14. The minister doubtless has in mind demands from the employers that, in the case of wages, strong action should be taken if the board de­nounces any particular claim.

15. Brazil had been a test case for a new global «financial architecture» that the US President proclaimed to the world last fall.

16. In any case, what the interpreter is after is the reasoning, the se­quence of arguments, starting with the premises and leading up to the conclusions.

17. The Foreign Secretary and the Government will, as was the case with the previous Government, stir up a hornet's nest if they attempt to interfere with these cost-of-living agreements.

18. The British Government declares that it is going to resist the im­plementation of these plans. However, this is not the case. The deeds of Britain's ruling circles in any case up to the latest time attest to the con­trary.

19. Once again logic must defer, in this case, to the vanity and power-hunger of national politicians.

20. But in concentrating their efforts on the most egregious cases in­volving the suspected illegal confinement of servants, federal agencies have skipped over others that fall short of that standard, even when they include apparent violations of federal labor, immigration and tax laws.

21. The Labour government was accused of publishing the names of informants who tipped off British police about those responsible for a racist murder.

The case has caused a massive round of national soul-searching over the treatment of minorities.

22. The government's case seems persuasive. Yet as the trial has plodded since October through cross examinations of witnesses, with both sides presenting mountains of documents, there is certainly room for doubt.

23. On March 19th Mr Clinton invited a few key senators over to the White House to press his case for intervention [in Yugoslavia].

24. Far from getting rid of a headache by giving the Scots a parlia­ment, Labour ministers in London have found that the first stages of devolution have given them a kingsize migraine. The row over tuition fees for university students is a perfect case in point.

25. Private debt, for both house holds and corporations, has been growing at an impressively rapid rate, and while the trade deficit shrank at the end of last year, it nonetheless set a record for the year as a whole.

26. Sheffield has a proud record of progressive politics. There is no doubt that this is the reason behind the progressive rehousing ideas.

27. The Labour Party is on record as saying that if any industry is failing the nation or its workers, then the Labour Government will take steps to bring it under public control.

28. Ms Dunn has a solidly conservative voting record. But while she is a fiscal conservative, her mixed voting record on abortion has angered some conservatives.

29. Many senators were already on the record opposing intervention, on the ground that America should on principle avoid getting embroiled in civil wars, or that the president has exceeded his prerogative by plan­ning for war without consulting Congress first.

30. That candidate's record shows what can be expected from him: a redbaiter, character assassin and a labour-hater.

31. Many member states are now on record as favouring this ap­proach, which was first formally presented at the general debate of the 19th session of the General Assembly.

32. The US President spoke as the State Department released in Washington its annual human right report to Congress. The timing put him in the awkward position of defending China — and his policy of en­gagement with the communist giant — at the same time that his Admini­stration reported a sharp deterioration in that country's human rights rec­ord.

33. Trade, Taiwan and security have all caused protests between the two countries and the US Secretary of State faces an even tougher task after the US Senate resolution, which urged that the UN condemn China's rights record.

34. When I got to Detroit and tried to board the Traverse City flight, the gate agent told me my «ticket» was not a ticket. She then looked in her computer and told me, quote: « Well, there's no record that you are here.» « But I am here,» I pointed out.

35. Bridgestone Corporation, the world's largest tire-maker by reve­nue, said yesterday its net profit last year tripled to a record on strong demand in the United States and Europe, lower prices for raw materials and a weaker yen.

36. Important official records in the UN are issued in the five official languages: Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

37. The Minister played his well-worn record about it being impossi­ble to plan the economy and not plan wages.

38. The pattern has been that African territories have been compelled by colonial rule and by their economic power to serve as raw materials appendages for western industry and western food consumption.

39. New patterns of economic development have brought material affluance to, notably, the oil-rich states of the Middle East and the newly industrialised states of East Asia, South East Asia, and, to some extent, Latin America.

40. Like a kaleidoscope, the patterns of world affairs shift with each spin of the globe.

41. «What we in America regard as most important is that Japan pur­sues policies that will deliver strong domestic demand-led growth and contribute to a more balanced pattern of growth in the world economy,» said an expert in economy.

42. Political fact Number One to most candidates is that it takes money to run for office — great gobs of it. To get this money, the legis­lator must go to people who have some extra cash.

43. The Tory leaders have evidently forgotten that their chief duty lies not towards their party or their personal ambitions, but to the offices they hold and the public they claim to serve.

44. Like armies that quit power in Chile, Pakistan, Argentina and elsewhere, Nigeria's military is seeking protection against retribution for its acts in office or a loss in status.

45. The EU's new Nordic members are far less inclined than the Mediterraneans are — or were — to see high political office as a chance to dole out the patronage and delegate the detailed stuff.

46. The major reason why the people of Africa have taken over the running of their countries is the ambition to lift their homeland out of the category of « economically underdeveloped)) regions, to raise their mate­rial standards of living and provide adequate social and cultural facilities.

47. Education is seen by the council as having a key role to play in in­creasing the economic effectiveness of the West Midlands and it urges the fullest use of the region's facilities.

48. In the field of industry special emphasis has been placed on the heavy industries, such as coal, steel and cement, but consumer goods fa­cilities such as sugar refineries and textile plants have also received at­tention.

49. «Facilities for retraining need to be developed to enable regional industry and the people employed in industry to cope with the technologi­cal and economic changes that are certain to be encountered,)) the report says.

50. The Swiss business community is sophisticated and highly experi­enced in international trade.

51. The first reaction from the financial community abroad to the measures taken by the British Government was cautiously favourable.

52. The National Security Agency officials were worried, said one source monitoring the intelligence community, «that people would take toys (Furbies) home and they'd start talking classified.»

53. The double boom of the explosion could be heard for miles, setting off car and burglar alarms and rattling windows throughout the nearby community.

54. He knows how to handle real power. Most germane of all, he did an impressive job of knocking Italy's indisciplined public finances into more rigorous shape.

55. Capitol Hill is the place people think they know more about than any other place on earth, because everything on Capitol Hill seems to be public. Everyone refers to it as a public place, and it is true that, at times, you can see all the public men whose salaries are paid by the public.

56. Direct democracy enables the public to express their own views and interests without having to rely on self-serving politicians.

57. The majority of the American people must buy power from pri­vately owned utilities and they pay rates two, three, four or more times higher than those paid to a publicly-owned utility.

Publicly-owned power systems aren't perfect in the United States. But there is no question that they are better than privately owned systems. They are run by local, state or federal government, special regional gov­erning bodies, or as cooperatives.

58. The Scottish Films Television Archive has been awarded £377.000 towards cataloguing and restoring thousands of films that have been stored in its Glasgow premises since it began an appeal in 1976 for the public to donate material lying in attics and basements.

59. The Party leader played down reports that the opposition was split over plans to orgarnize a public petition against the proposal to give citizenship to millions of foreigners in Germany.

60. With no satisfactory agreement even close on the budget, perhaps the European Union could ill afford a public falling out among its members.

61. The EU's greatest achievements have been through laws and treaties and eliminating trade barriers; none has arisen through public spending at the supranational level.

62. Although civil society can be distinguished from the state, it nevertheless contains a range of institutions that are thought of as «public» in the wider sense that they are open institutions, operating in public, to which the public has access.

63. Bringing jobs to communities rather than compelling workers to tear up their roots and move hundreds of miles maintains social cohesion.

64. The United States has already destroyed one facility in Sudan in its attempt to target chemical weapons.

65. Washington has imagined no serious challenge to American power until the distant future.


^ II. Служебные слова


1. Since — грамматический омоним. Выступая в предложении в качестве союза, since переводится на русский язык: 1) поскольку, так как; 2) с тех пор как, после этого (того). Выступая в качестве предлога, since переводится с, со времени и т. д.:


Up to the present, international agreements on the prices of certain major products have scarcely modified the situation since prices are always dictated by the big industrial powers. Вплоть до настоящего времени международные соглашения о ценах на некоторые ос­новные продукты вряд ли изменили положение дел, поскольку цены всегда определяются (диктуются) крупными промышлен­ными державами.

The arrival of a common European currency is the most important event for European integration since the Treaties of Rome in 1957. Введение единой европейской валюты — самое важное событие в европейской интеграции со времени подписания Римских дого­воров в 1957 году.


Примечание: Словосочетание since then переводится: с тех пор, с то­го времени, после этого; ever since 1) с тех (самих) пор (как); 2) со времени; long since давно уже.


2. While — многозначный союз. Переводится на русский язык: 1) в то время как, пока; 2) хотя, тогда как, несмотря на то, что; 3) и, а, но


The EU economies enjoy a trade surplus, while the United States has a $200 billion annual trade deficit. Экономика Европейского Союза имеет положительное сальдо торгового баланса, а (в то время, как) США имеют дефицит торгового баланса в размере 200 млрд. долларов ежегодно.

^ While the scope of the bloodshed had been generally known, the report is the first to lay out the extent of the violence and pin it on the government. Хотя масштабы кровопролития были в общих чертах известны и раньше, в этом докладе впервые приводятся данные о насилии и возлагается вина за это на правительство.


Примечание. While в сочетании с причастием обычно не переводится.


The Iraqi Kurds, while not wanting to give offence to the US and happy about any offers of weaponry, are determined to avoid significant action against their President. Иракские курды, не желая обижать США и привет­ствуя любые предложения о поставках оружия, стремятся избегать серьезных акций против своего президента.


3. ^ For — грамматический омоним. Выступая в предложении в качестве союза, for переводится на русский язык: ибо, так как, по­тому что.

Television is the prime culprit for it has become the model for eve­rything in our society. Телевидение — главный виновник, т.к. оно стало моделью всего в нашем обществе.


Выступая в качестве предлога, for переводится: 1) за, ради; 2) за, по; 3) для; 4) в течение, на какой-либо срок; 5) из-за, по причине, вследствие; 6) на, к; 7) от, против (болезни); 8) за, вместо; 9) for all... несмотря на, при (всем)... вопреки, чтобы... не...; ...for one со своей стороны; for one thing во-первых, прежде всего; for that matter несмотря на всё; и всё же; в сущности, фактически; собст­венно/по правде говоря; если на то пошло; что касается этого, в этом отношении; but for если бы не.


For many Americans, capital punishment seems more a symbol of society's indignation at the evil in its midst than a fair or useful weapon against crime. Для многих американцев смертная казнь представляется скоре символом возмущения общества злом в его среде, нежели справедливым или полезным средством борьбы с преступностью.


4. As — грамматический омоним. Выступая в предложении в ка­честве союза, переводится: 1) когда, в то время как, по мере того как; 2) так как; 3) как. После прилагательного (в функции предика­тивного члена) в инвертированном предложении имеет уступитель­ное значение и переводится: хотя, как ни.


The gloom in East Asia is likely to deepen in the months ahead as more firms and banks go bust and unemployment and inflation rise. В Восточной Азии в предстоящие месяцы наблюдаемые ныне на­строения подавленности, вероятно, будут нарастать по мере то­го, как все больше фирм и банков (будут) разорятся, а безработи­ца и инфляция будут расти.

Difficult as the task was, they set a time-limit for its fulfilment. Как ни трудна была задача (хотя эта задача была очень трудной), они установили срок для ее выполнения.


Выступая в качестве наречия, as переводится: как, как например. В сочетании с прилагательным и наречием — так же ... как, такой же ... как. Другие сочетания: as to (for) что касается; as if как если бы, как будто; so as (с тем) чтобы; так (настолько) чтобы; as it is (в начале предложения) как бы то ни было, в действительности, можно сказать; (в конце предложения) уже и так, без того; as it were как бы то ни было; as it happens между прочим, оказывается; as a matter of fact фактически, в действительности; as a whole в целом.


Roughly 3 '/2 m people live in today's Ireland, making it about as big, in terms of man-power, as many a good-sized American city — Boston, say. В сегодняшней Ирландии живет приблизительно 3,5 млн. человек, делая ее по численности населения такой же, как любой крупный американский город, например, Бостон.


5. ^ But — грамматический омоним. В качестве предлога but пере­водится на русский язык: кроме, за исключением; anything but дале­ко не, все что угодно, только не. В качестве союза переводится: 1) но, а, однако, тем не менее; 2) если не, как не, чтобы не; but for если бы не. В качестве наречия переводится: только, лишь.


The Bank of England issued orders to banks to limit advances to all but exporters. Банк Англии разослал указания банкам ограни­чить выдачу ссуд всем, кроме экспортеров.


Примечание. ^ But после cannot означает двойное отрицание; перево­дится не может не...


The single currency cannot but pose a financial and economic challenge to Washington. Единая валюта (в Европе) не может не представлять серьезной финансовой и экономической проблемы для Вашингтона.


6. Once — грамматический омоним. Выступая в предложении в качестве наречия, переводится: один раз, однажды, когда-то, неко­гда; выступая в качестве союза, переводится: как только, коль скоро.


Referendums, once a rarity, have now become a regular feature of our constitutional practice. Референдумы, когда-то бывшие ред­ким явлением, сейчас стали привычной чертой нашей конститу­ционной практики.

The rules that Europe has adopted say that no country can with­draw from the Union once it enters. Правила, принятые Европей­ским Союзом, гласят, что ни одна страна не может выйти из Союза, коль скоро она в него вступит (вступила).


7. Слово well в сочетании с различными частями речи, сохраняя в основном свое значение, переводится по-разному:

1. well + глагол (well стоит после глагола) и well + причастие II (well стоит перед причастием): хорошо, вполне.


The plan, if well designed, will make it possible to save our resources. План, если он хорошо составлен, даст возможность со­хранить наши ресурсы.


2. well + модальный глагол (well стоит между модальным и ос­новным глаголом): вполне, с успехом.


This question may well be discussed at the next sitting. Этот во­прос с успехом может быть обсужден на следующем заседании.


3. well + наречие (союз): значительно, очень, довольно; well after значительно позже; well before задолго до; as well также; as well as так же как, как... , так и.... , кроме того, не только, но...


Private consumption was well down in the first part of the year. Потребление в частном секторе было очень низким в первой по­ловине года.

Cheap oil could cause instability as well as poverty. Дешевая нефть может вызвать не только бедность, но и нестабильность. (Дешевая нефть, помимо бедности, может также вызвать не­стабильность).

Обратите внимание на инверсионный порядок слов в переводе.

Если сочетание с as well as выделено запятыми, то в переводе это будет выражено в прямом порядке слов.


Today nearly all Western democracies, as well as dozens of other countries, have abandoned capital punishment. Сейчас почти все за­падные демократические государства, а также десятки других стран, отказались от смертной казни.


Примечание. Наречия very очень и then тогда в функции прилага­тельного приобретают другое значение: very (тот) сам, сама, самый; then тогдашний.


Some dismiss political correctness (PC) as a danger to the very fabric of American life. Некоторые не принимают «политическую корректность», усматривая в ней угрозу самой основе американского образа жизни.


^ Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

1. The government has put the court in an awkward position, since judges almost never clarify rulings unless it is in the context of a subse­quent case.

2. Since Leftwing MPs (Members of Parliament) have thus far failed to agree to the law imposing fines and imprisonment on trade unionists who continue to defend and improve their working conditions, a party meeting is being held on Wednesday.

3. Since then Poland's political make-up has changed fundamentally.

4. Since 1989 the United States has been, in economic and military terms, the most powerful state in the world.

5. The popularity of the German coalition government has dropped sharply since its victory in last October's general elections, an opinion poll indicated Sunday.

6. Since his own landslide victory, Mr. Khatami has struggled against conservative rivals who have jailed his political allies.

7. Since drug legalization — which might work, and which this paper has supported — is unacceptable to either side, the two countries [the USA and Mexico] will need to lower their defences in a different way: by being honest with each other.

8. The State Department told Congress on Friday that China went into reverse on human rights last autumn, backtracking on political reform while continuing «to commit widespread and well-documented human rights abuses» that defied international norms.

9. The report fueled talk that US interest rates may be raised this year while expectations are for lower rates in Europe.

10. In the Protestant Netherlands, bourgeois buyers became important patrons of art, and genre paintings found a solid market, while in Catholic Italy, where church and aristocratic patrons called the tune, attitudes were ambivalent toward pictures outside the mainstream of religious and his­tory painting.

11. Sources in the Administration while saying that no decisions have been made, suggest that the current consensus of senior advisers favor a lower-temperature policy designed to improve the bargaining position of the United States.

12. A high-ranking Transport Ministry official recently stated that while Japan is sympathetic to the plight of European shipbuilders, it is unlikely that the Japanese shipbuilding industry will be able to make fur­ther concessions on the matter.

13. Some Americans fear an arms race in space, while others see the military use of the shuttle as a natural consequence of the superiority of U.S. space technology although such superiority may prove temporary.

14. While discussion of a possible link between the krone and Europe's new single currency is at the top of the agenda, analysts expect little more than vaguely worded communiques pledging cooperation be­tween Norway and the EU.

15. But the figures also illustrated that while the company's order backlog remains healthy, fewer customers are purchasing its (Boeing's) most expensive and profitable airplanes.

16. He is reported to have emphasized to the Cabinet that Canada was concerned at the possibility of military action, while Asian members of the Commonwealth were all opposed to the use of force.

17. While pressing for every kind of financial help to the local authorities, it is evident that only nationalization of all urban land is an essential need.

18. The Foreign Secretary will propose a package of measures de­signed to increase the democratic legitimacy of the European Union while curbing the powers of the European Commission.

19. While the US unemployment rate fell back to a 28-year low of 4.3 per cent, the German jobless rate jumped to 10.9 per cent from 10.2 per cent.

20. «...do not allow France alone to be represented by two «heads of government,)) President and his prime minister at the EU summits, for they simply compete to be seen back home as the farmer's best friends,)) said a EU official.

21. ...the riot surpassed those that had preceded it. For here was the most sensational expression of an ugly mood of nihilism and anarchy that has ever gripped a small but significant segment of America's Black mi­nority.

22. As nuclear stations are expensive to build but cheaper to fuel and therefore more suitable for base-load supply, the public utilities associa­tion proposes, on grounds of cost if for no other reason, to meet about 70 per cent of the additional capacity requirement (22,000 megawatts) by commissioning 20 new nuclear power stations over the next 10 years.

23. When is an economic slump not a slump? The answer: When the economy in question is Japan's. For what Japanese economic and busi­ness leaders are all too ready to define as a «slump» or «slowdown» would be considered a rosy picture in virtually any other industrial coun­try of the West.

24. The Battle of the Budget will be fought on two levels: in the Con­gress and between private organizations in the nation that support or op­pose President's economic program.

The second level is particularly interesting, for its object is to influ­ence public opinion, and whoever wins this campaign could be decisive in the final votes on Capitol Hill.

25. We no longer prefer to confront reality directly, for long ago we learned and accepted the fact that reality has for all practical purposes be­come unmanageable. Instead we have turned our energies to the prolif­eration and production of endless amounts of unreality to soothe our tired and fractured egos.

26. Former Attorney General R.C. and U.S. representative G.G. opened a conference on Cuba here last weekend with strong demands for an end to the U. S. economic and political blockade of that island nation .

«We call for an end to the economic blockade of Cuba not only be­cause we believe it is just, not only because we believe it is humane, but also because it is strategically, economically and politically in the inter­ests of the United States.»

27. For most of American history, relations with Europe have been cool.

28. All this proves that all this talk about the so-called greater democ­racy of secret ballot is so much eye-wash. It is open to abuse and is no substitute for our trade union procedure of full discussion at a meeting and a show of hands, said Mr. M.

29. After lengthy negotiations they substituted a treaty for an unoffi­cial agreement.

30. The mill workers in Scotsville had been out for a year and a half already and they were becoming desperate for food and clothing.

31. For these reasons the dreams of a solution along these lines are empty castles in the clouds.

32. The right of the states to decide voting qualifications is preserved, so long as it is not used for systematic discrimination.

33. As always, growth is bound to be uneven. Mexico is being kept aloft by the strong US economy. South Korea is growing again, Japan is showing some signs of life, but Asia is apt to remain shaky for a while to come.

34. For the first time in their history teachers are threatening a real showdown on their objection to the supervision of school meals, the daily duty that means many of them have to work during their lunch hour.

35. It is considered that Atlantic relations for all their seeming nor­malcy face a profound crisis.

36. Already, Israeli officials in Europe, in background meetings with correspondents, have bitterly criticized the plan as an attempt to impose conditions on Israel and as European appeasement of Arab oil states.

37. At the same time, the reported compromise reaffirms the desire of leading administration policy-makers to re-direct foreign aid along more conservative lines that would give bilateral aid priority over multilateral aid as a political tool to reward friends of the U.S. wherever possible.

38. «China is bracing for a slower economic growth rate as troubles at home and abroad take their toll on gross domestic product,)) officials said yesterday.

39. As other western democracies have condemned and abandoned the death penalty, America has defended it with increasing vigour.

40. It was a grueling process of editorial refinement that either im­proved and sharpened the story at each successive stage, or distorted it as it passed from hand to hand and mind to mind.

41. Trading on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange was suspended for a second Monday as brokers and administrators waited for clarifications from the finance ministry of controversial new tax laws.

42. Religious groups in China, including Protestants and Catholics, again experienced interference and repression even as the number of ad­herents in many churches continued to grow at a rapid pace.

43. As recently as early March of this year, the Prime Minister re­buffed one of his top subordinates who strongly urged him to point out to American officials that a lot of their balance-of-payment troubles were of their own making.

44. The incident occurred as MPs were voting in a second round con­fidence vote for the formation of a new centrist government.

45. «But as media conglomerates evolve into media monoliths, con­flict of interest can only become more frequent.»

46. Crude [oil] is gushing from the ground at the rate of 66 m. barrels a day, half as copiously again as in OPEC's prime.

47. There is a flip side to Elizabeth Dole's big-heartedness. Her steely temper and icy glares are almost as legendary in Washington as her acts of charity.

48. Coming as they do in the wake of the fascist outrages at Bologna station and the Paris synagogue, the disclosures are bound to raise the question of how much longer the authorities will turn a blind eye to these open preparations for fascist terrorism in Britain.

49. The Commerce Department is mulling sanctions on offending for­eigners, and the vice-president wants to sound concerned. Much as he wishes to be the apostle of orthodox economics and free trade, he cannot afford to seem insensitive to the losers in this system.

50. The latest operation is not quite like those others. First, it is NATO's first unambiguous attack on a sovereignstate that stands accused of being vile not to its neighbours but only to its own people. Such be­haviour, offensive as it is, has long been considered the prerogative of properly constituted governments.

51. As far as Presidential elections are concerned, they are not very democratic. It's really a monopoly of the two parties, and each year it has been getting more difficult for Independents to get on the ballot in many states.

52. As far as the mind is concerned racism cannot be done away with by legislation. But acts of racism can. That's where we can pinpoint the question. When racist acts become illegal, that becomes a much firmer basis to remove racism from the minds of people. That's an educational process but we can lay the legal basis for it.

53. Ms. Daly, while widely respected for her scholarship, is consid­ered a perpetual thorn in the side of the college administration, as much for her feminist theories as for her views on Catholicism.

54. In 1973, when most people feared that nothing could stop greedy OPEC members from raising oil prices as much as they chose, the producers affected to accept western cash for their black bullion out of charity.

55. In unexpectedly strong language, the report describes the Guate­malan policy at the height of the war as a policy of genocide.

56. Sociologists are fond of characterising Italy as a place, strong on families but feeble on « civic society».

57. The full effect on trade of rising costs caused by high wage settle­ments and a rising exchange rate has yet to be felt in Britain, the bank said. Company profitability in the first six months was the worst recorded and real unemployment is growing twice as fast as official jobless statis­tics show.

58. Several distinguished economists testifying on Capitol Hill have cast doubts on the administration's predictions. L.K., the Nobel Prize winner, says, «The outlook is not as rosy as far as growth is concerned, as far as inflation is concerned and as far as the balanced budget is con­cerned.»

59. However, any concession as valuable as this was to the British could not be allowed to evaporate.

60. Both astronauts emphasized that they did not expect any major problems during the maiden flight. As for the technical problems that had delayed the shuttle's launch by almost three years, they remarked that «engineering problems are the name of the game.»

61. In East Asian countries death penalty is applied to drug smugglers and rapists as well as to murderers.

62. The deregulation of the 1990s has created competition between the states in attracting investment from within India as well as from foreign investment.

63. The idea of «the man of feeling» describes America's perception of its role in today's world as well as in the world of 1776.

64. Space station «Freedom», as it was then called, was to be com­pleted at a cost of $8 bin. As well as asserting America's might as a space-faring superpower, it let researchers monitor the effects of very long-term weightlessness on astronauts.

65. The World Bank has prepared a draft set of «principles of good practice social policy,» which draws on its own experience of social de­velopment as well as action plans and declarations drawn up by other bodies.

66. Though George Gallup is most famous as a political pollster, he built a fortune telling manufacturers and film makers, as well as politi­cians, what people thought.

67. If Cardinal Martini did become pope, he might shake things up quite a bit. For sure, no one else in the Catholic hierarchy has the same grasp of issues, worldly as well as spiritual. He knows the ins and outs of global immigration. He is a diplomat who has deftly handled such tortuous matters as relations between Christians and Jews. He is well-travelled and sophisticated, as popular in the Anglo-Saxon world as in Southern Europe.

68. But if the blunt instrument of bombing succeeds in this, it will owe as much to luck as to precision.

69. On the constitution, the Blair government can justly claim to be radical. Decentralisation of government was overdue. Just as important will be the fulfilment of promises for a Freedom of Information Act, and for greater protection of human rights. But the impetus for reform came as much from political expediency, in particular a desire to fend off Scot­tish nationalism, as from a coherent vision of a modern constitution.

70. The gut anti-Americanism of the European left, often as much cultural as ideological, was diluted in Mr Solana's case by his time spent in the USA as a Fulbright scholar in the 1960s.

71. In recent weeks, several heads of government have begun to muse, after the years of belt-tightening needed to qualify for euro, about reduc­ing their high unemployment by increased public spending. Yet, though it would be as wrong to pursue too restrictive a fiscal policy as too tight a monetary policy, should economies slow sharply, more public spending is the last thing Europe needs.

72. Perhaps the European Commission should resign more often. Its decision to do so last week has so far been nothing but a tonic.

73. While Elizabeth Dole was considered warm and friendly by the rank and file at the Labor Department, those who worked more closely with her in the executive suite often saw a woman who could be cool and inaccessible to all but a few trusted aides.

74. For a generation, Italy — to its credit — has educated women on a par with men, forever broadening their horizons beyond the kitchen and crib... But the government has all but ignored the flip side of sending women off to work: the children and household responsibilities they leave behind.

75. The Government has declared war on the unions. They have no alternative but to fight back with every weapon at their disposal.

76. We cannot but recall in this connection the statement made by Mr. Eden in the League of Nations Assembly in 1936.

77. « Everything from the strength of our economy, to the safety of our cities, to the health of our people depends on events not only within our border but half a world away,» the President said.

78. What response the Japanese people will make to that defeat can now be but dimly foreseen.

79. Despite a «difficult year» last year, the bank increased its net profits by 24 per cent and shareholders would have been given a bigger increase than that recently announced but for the Government's restraint rules.

80. In our epoch the peoples and states have but one choice: peaceful coexistence or nuclear war of extermination.

81. In view of profound political upheavals of the late twentieth cen­tury, it could be foolish to suggest that any system of classification of po­litical regimes can be anything but provisional.

82. She casts herself as a representative of traditional Christian family values, yet her personal history has been anything but traditional.

83. Once it could be presumed that all American consumers wanted basically the same thing, American producers suddenly had a large stake in knowing what that was.

84. He once had a dozen chiefs and vice presidents reporting directly to him and oversaw a 500-person company. Now his only employee is a personal assistant who left the company with him.

85. Once the negotiators initial* the package in Geneva, the partici­pating governments will go over the fine print** to iron out possible minor differences, then sign a revised « final act.»

86. Once thinking and reason have been expunged, it's merely a mat­ter of which belief system one prefers and how that belief system defines the «Higher good.»

87. If the Saudi royal family, in particular, were overthrown, it would send oil markets into turmoil. Once low prices move more production back to the Middle East, even a toppled emirate or two might be enough to cause disarray.

88. For once, « Britain, France and other European governments feel that they are moving seriously on defence, so they want Washington to let the alliance stand on its laurels and not roil allied relations,)) a pro-American ambassador at NATO headquarters said.

89. Informal discussions have begun on a third treaty that could bring both sides down to 2.000 warheads or lower. Once the United States and Russia reach that level, arms reduction talks will have to include the other nuclear powers as well.

90. The morning's debate had produced more passion than reason, more noise than skill. The Secretary of State moved the successful motion on defence costs with a speech well below his best form.

91. In the federal elections they will probably not do quite so well, but nevertheless they are likely to gain seats.

92. For the French, the biggest beneficiaries of agricultural subsidies, the question concerns not only money but the very character of the EU.

93. This was the very week in which big business started to fire its pro-Euro artillery, with the official launch of the «Britain in Еигоре» campaign headed by the Chairman of British Airways.



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