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§ 13. ПРЕПОЗИТИВНЫЕ АТРИБУТИВНЫЕ СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ - Г. М. Зиборова трудности перевода общественно- политического текста...


§ 13. ПРЕПОЗИТИВНЫЕ АТРИБУТИВНЫЕ СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ


Препозитивные атрибутивные словосочетания, образованные при помощи соположения ряда существительных, очень распространены в английском языке. Они представляют трудность для перевода из-за многообразия семантических связей между членами словосочета­ния, а в ряде случаев из-за многозначности словосочетания, а также из-за различия структур английского и русского языков.

Для правильного перевода словосочетания необходимо проана­лизировать внутренние смысловые связи между его членами.


^ I. Двучленные словосочетания


Первый член двучленного атрибутивного словосочетания может переводиться на русский язык:

  1. прилагательным: emergency meeting внеочередное/экстрен­ное заседание; power station электрическая станция; factory com­mittees фабричные комитеты.

  2. существительным в родительном падеже: incomes policy по­литика доходов; wage rise повышение зарплаты; budget increase уве­личение бюджета.

  3. существительным с предлогом: strike warning предупрежде­ние о забастовке; disarmament conference конференция по разору­жению (предложное дополнение); Coalbrook disaster несчастный случай в Колбруке (обстоятельство места).


Примечание. 1. В отдельных случаях первый член атрибутивного словосочетания может переводиться придаточным предложением или при­частным оборотом: wage deadlock тупик, в который зашли, переговоры о повышении заработной платы (в вопросе о заработной плате).

2. В ряде случаев двучленные словосочетания могут быть многозначны­ми. Например: university books университетские книги; книги об универси­тете.

Для правильного перевода необходим либо широкий контекст, либо ос­ведомленность о данной ситуации.


^ II. Многочленные словосочетания


1. При переводе многочленных словосочетаний надо придержи­ваться следующего правила:

1) перевести определяемое существительное (последнее слово словосочетания); 2) проанализировать смысловые связи между чле­нами словосочетания и разбить их на смысловые группы (анализ проводится слева направо); 3) перевести словосочетание, начиная с определяемого слова, и затем переводить каждую смысловую груп­пу справа налево.

В зависимости от смысловых связей многочленные словосочета­ния могут переводиться по принципу двучленных словосочетаний. Например, надо перевести словосочетание Bank Credit Regulation Committee. Переводим последнее слово словосочетания: комитет. Далее разбиваем все словосочетание на смысловые группы: 1. Bank Credit, 2. Regulation Committee. Переводим все словосочетание: Ко­митет по регулированию банковских кредитов.

2. В некоторых словосочетаниях одно из существительных, вы­ступающих в функции определения, может переводиться на русский язык причастием: raw material production countries страны, произво­дящие сырье.

3. Атрибутивные словосочетания могут начинаться прилагатель­ным или причастием. В этом случае надо выяснить, к какому слову относится первый член словосочетания. Например: sudden policy change внезапное изменение политики; combined operation headquarters штаб совместных действий; National Liberation Front successes успехи Национально-освободительного фронта.

4. В том случае, когда в начале атрибутивного словосочетания стоит имя собственное, обозначающее географическое название, оно переводится на русский язык прилагательным, существительным в родительном падеже или существительным с предлогом (обстоятельство места) : London district committee районный комитет Лон­дона; Paris peace talks мирные переговоры в Париже (происходящие в Париже).

5. В том случае, когда в середине атрибутивного словосочетания стоит прилагательное, оно переводится на русский язык прилага­тельным (определением к тому слову, перед которым оно стоит): NATO pact military chiefs военные начальники пакта НАТО.

6. Атрибутивная группа может состоять не только из существи­тельных, в ее состав могут входить и другие части речи: числитель­ные, причастия, глаголы и т. д. Некоторые элементы этих словосо­четаний соединяются между собой дефисом или заключаются в ка­вычки. Такие атрибутивные группы обычно переводятся причаст­ными оборотами или придаточными предложениями: the Labour-controlled city council городской совет, в котором большинство при­надлежит лейбористам; a six-point control plan контрольный план, состоящий (который состоит) из 6 пунктов; take-it-or-leave-it draft resolution проект резолюции, носящий (который носит) ультима­тивный характер; « Back to work before talks begin» declaration тре­бование, чтобы рабочие вернулись к работе до того, как начнутся переговоры.


^ Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

  1. China yesterday attacked a US Senate resolution condemning Chi­nese human rights violations, adding to tensions between the two giants.

  2. The US President is scheduled to make a four-day, four-nation swing through Central America.

  3. The conservative parties' petition against the plan (to give citizen­ship to millions of foreigners in Germany) was counterproductive, he said, and would encourage xenophobia and bolster extreme-right groups.

  4. Order books and industrial confidence have weakened significantly since last spring, while industrial-production growth also has slowed during the past year.

  5. She is one of her party's most active and successful fund-raisers and has used her political action committee to funnel campaign contribu­tions to other House Representatives.

  6. ...the public-safety commissioner of Birmingham, Ala., was ready to use water canons and attack dogs on a group of civil rights demon­strators.

  7. However, domestic-based American export industry will lose the dominant-currency advantage it has enjoyed for 50 years.

  8. Among the other provisions of the administration's new crime package are background checks for buyers at gun shows, a lifetime ban on gun possession by juveniles convicted of certain violent crimes, and child safety locks on all guns.

  9. Major donor nations promised Cambodia $470 million in aid, but they linked it to implementation of political and social reforms in the pov­erty stricken nation.

  10. The prewar corporate world was more loosely structured, allow­ing smart, ambitious women to break out of the secretarial ranks.

  11. The Santo Clara company, the world's biggest chipmaker, was expected to discuss encryption and other information-security issues at an industry conference that began Monday in San Jose, California.

  12. The euro zone is facing a short-lived growth slump because of problems in Brazil and other regions across the globe, the president of the European Central Bank said.

  13. Apart from pay and pension fund cuts, the earlier cost-cutting moves included lower utility, transport and rental costs.

  14. Home Office spokesman said yesterday that their policy was not to disclose any information about a taxpayer or his affairs without his prior consent.

  15. The announcement of assistance to Cambodia by 17 donor coun­tries and six international finance organizations was made at the close of the two-day Consultative Group Meeting for Cambodia.

  16. The Treasurer introduced a Bill to implement the Government's plan to give preferential taxation treatment to life insurance companies.

  17. Bangladeshis went to work and schools Friday, to recoup losses suffered from a three-day anti-government strike that paralyzed the country's main cities and claimed seven lives.

  18. In Suburbia live one-third of the nation, who represent every patch of democracy's hand-stitched quilt, every economic layer, every laboring and professional pursuit in the country.

  19. Suburbia is the nation's broadening young middle class, staking out its claim across the landscape, prospecting on a trial-and-error bal­ance for the good way of life for itself and for the children that it pro­duces with such rapidity.

  20. The United Nations' Drugs Control Programme (UNDCP) could become the centerpiece of a special session of the UN General Assembly in June, leading to a new global drug-control convention to replace the cat's-cradle of existing accords.

  21. This [the elections to the new Scottish parliament] has been perhaps the first revolution (how else do you describe the re-establishment of a nation's government?) that has been conducted by pen-pushing com­mittees of lawyers, clergymen and accountants rather than cells of bearded radicals.

  22. Unfortunately, his choices on Europe are likely to be more com­plicated than a clash between a forward-looking embrace of Europe, and a backward-looking scepticism.

  23. If Mr. Blair is not careful enough [with the modernisation of the welfare state] he could end up with a mess, like Mr. Clinton's ill-fated health-care reforms.

  24. Britain's classrooms face collapse. This stark warning comes from the government's own official schools inspectors who issued their latest annual report yesterday.

And their devastating indictment of the impact of the cuts wrung the admission from Education Secretary that every third school did not have enough books and every fifth school did not have enough teachers.

  1. Canada's defence industry is up in arms over changes to ^ US export control regulations that have eliminated Canada's long-standing exemp­tion from certain US export licensing requirements.

  2. Backing Thursday's mass lobby was the first decision taken by delegates from 30 union organisations called together by steel workers action groups at the weekend to set up a grass-roots Fight Back for jobs movement.

  3. The Japanese government, and some economists elsewhere, have proposed that Europe, the United States and Japan set exchange rate «target zones» so as to re-establish the stable international currency re­lationships that existed under the Bretton Woods system and ended when the United States «floated» the dollar in 1971.

  4. The war in Guatemala, which began in 1960, pitted a rightist military-controlled government against a classic Latin American leftist insurgency.

  5. Credit Lyonnais's privatisation arrangements will be published after discussions with the European Commission, officials at the French Finance Ministry said.

  6. The broad network of community, trade union, professional, sen­ior citizen, and public interest groups that organized the state's Citizen Labor Energy Coalition is the decisive force in the current struggle.

  7. The economic assistance package was discussed briefly during a private briefing of the Senate Appropriations Committee by senior offi­cials from the Departments of State and Defence, and the CIA.

  8. Coupled with the spending and tax proposals were changes in the federal regulatory process and monetary policy.

  9. When recession suggests a continentwide need for stimulus, the pressure will be on the member states (of the EU) to create some sort of joint fiscal decision-making mechanism.

  10. When mothers return to their jobs, reliable, affordable child care is provided by a vast network of government-backed neighborhood day­care centers.

  11. John Kasich, the 46-year-old House budget chairman, is a popu­list fighting «corporate welfare» tax cuts for big business. And he's a maverick who helped Democrats try to kill spending for the B-2 bomber and pass a ban on assault weapons.

  12. In the past few years coordination agencies have been created by the Government to include a Foreign Exchange Committee and an Inter­nal Finance Committee; and the Central Bank and the Ministries of Fi­nance, Commerce and State Enterprises exert some influence in this sphere.

  13. A week of county council election opened in England and Wales yesterday when Monmouthshire and Norfolk went to the polls.

  14. Public support for the railway strike decision is growing. This is shown in an opinion poll published in yesterday's Mail.

  15. The protest is against National Coal Board redundancy notices to 140 miners, mainly young men of under 21, which take effect today.

  16. An official from Taiwan's China Development Corporation, the island's biggest investment group, has described the current condition as a «once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.»

  17. Reflecting on last week's disastrous local election results most Labour MPs have at last realized that their Prime Minister's home and foreign policies are vote-losers.

  18. The get-rich-quick mania also plays into people's natural com­petitiveness and, often, deep-seated feelings of inadequacy.

  19. Only one-quarter of the world's synoptic surface weather obser­vation posts are below the Equator.

  20. The three month United Nations World Trade and Development Conference, which was attended by representatives of 122 Governments, was called the Little General Assembly.

  21. Now the Civil Rights Commission, in two days of open hearings, has turned the spotlight on the near-ghetto conditions in which Blacks live in the only major city in the country where they are in a majority.

  22. The three-man UN mission leaves London today after four days of talks with the British Government. The mission yesterday described the London talks as « useful».

  23. The president has ordered up a war. A humanitarian crisis has erupted. And the Republicans? Save for the predictable isolationism of Pat Buchanan and the direct we're-in-it-let's-win-it response of John McCain, they're flummoxed — and it's gone from bad to worse.

  24. Several magistrates are staying away from the civic luncheon be­ing given by the Labour-controlled city magistrates.

  25. Paradoxically, the poll returns mean that he will be able to go ahead with his plan to introduce a pay-as-you-earn income tax scheme, which had been the main issue of the elections.

  26. The contest, also held on May 6th but on traditional first-past-the-post rules, produced some grossly skewed results.

  27. Most of British men who came to adulthood in the first half of the century had stay-at-home wives and manual jobs.

  28. The country has become an anything-goes, chaotically libertarian society.

  29. Members of Parliament of all shades last night in the Commons fought a genuine, no-holds-barred scrap over the fate of Britain's unem­ployment.

  30. The Prime Minister back-to-hearth-and-kitchen reproach to women — many of whom will themselves feel very angry at her attempt to make them feel guilty for going out to work — comes at the end of a year of attacks on provision for children.

  31. There was never a promise to aid an uprising lest it result in the fragmenting of the Iraqi state with who-knows-what consequences for the region's balance of power.

  32. Far more questionable are the restrictions proposed for the state-financed unemployment benefit programs for the short-term unemployed.

  33. Civil Service unions, who staged a one-day nationwide protest walkout Monday against government pay curbs, threatened widespread chaos at airports at midnight Thursday, aimed at U.S. airliners.

  34. The report listed a whole range of tax-deductible items available to companies, including company houses, yachts for entertaining overseas clients and even company racehorses.

  35. The author criticized the American reporters for relying too much on interviews and too little on documented evidence, for chasing too many spot stories and spending too little time examining long-term trends.

  36. It was disquieting to learn the other day that a CIA-led task force has proposed removing many current restraints on collecting information on Americans — on Americans, moreover, neither accused nor suspected of committing any crime.

  37. Gun control has been a hotly debated national issue for the last two decades. But with every assassination and attempted assassination, public outcries for effective national controls have been followed either by congressional inaction or passage of such weak legislation that gun-control proponents have branded it of little use.

  38. The sources said the US President was reluctant to take part in a North-South summit meeting after a eight-nation economic summit meet­ing.

  39. « These supply-oriented policies are directed at the medium-term,» the panel said. «lf they are successful, it will raise the international com­petitiveness of German products.»

  40. Militant regional leaders of Britain's miners defied a return-to-work order from their national union Thursday, declaring mistrust of the Conservative government despite its abrupt turnaround over threatened pit closures.

  41. The cool, pragmatic premier lately had come under a barrage of criticism from the right-wing and others in his faction-ridden Union of the Democratic Center, which was supposed to have begun its second congress Thursday on the island of Majorca.

  42. The left, they [centre-right politicians] concede has done better at presenting itself as a source of reassurance, a comforting pair of hands to protect ordinary people against the wicked forces of unfettered market economics. The New Left stands for a kind of anti-post-cold-was-capitalist triumphalism, which plays mercilessly on the caricature of an unfeeling Right.

  43. Sanyo Electric expects to show record profit and sales figures for the year ending next Nov. 30, company president said Tuesday. He said after-tax profit for the period will rise.

  44. The tricky job of unemployment-benefit policy-makers is thus to provide adequate compensation to allow worker adjustment to necessary economic change without, at the same time, interfering with labor mar­kets by promoting worker turnover, increasing payroll costs and pro­longing unemployment.

  45. Mere mention of the Senate Democrats these days calls to mind a row of chin-on-fist Rodin figures, all of course called The Rethinkers. But we suspect those ostensibly «rethinking» Democrats we have been hearing so much about are going to have to give some early and careful thought to their opposition role. It is one with which they are unfamiliar and, some would say, for which they are temperamentally breathtakingly unsuited. The tension on their side of the aisle (and, in a way, within the Democratic majority in the House as well) is likely to» be between the hothead, fight-everything, obstruct-wherever-you-can folks and those (soon to be called «sell-outs») who will be arguing the old line about re­straint and being seen to be helping the administration govern.

  46. «However, the of-necessity somewhat hypocritical nature of a number of our findings and their dependence on certain political, biologi­cal and technical assumptions is a feature they share with many contem­porary planning schemes,» he said.

  47. Such divisions [in the president's party] exist on trade, for exam­ple. Mr. Clinton's economic team, is by and large supportive of trade lib­eralisation, whereas the labour-union base of the Democratic Party is hostile. This explains why Mr. Clinton never made a convincing case for fast-track trade-negotiating authority, which Congress consequently blocked.

  48. In one breath senior Republicans are calling for a national dia­logue on tax reform to simplify the country's distorted tax code. In an­other, they are clamouring for an end to the «marriage tax penalty» — the fact that many couples pay more taxes if they marry than if they re­main single. Ending this «penalty» implies an expensive, loophole-creating tax cut within the existing system.


§ 14. НЕОЛОГИЗМЫ


^ I. Неологизмы — это новые слова, еще не зарегистрированные в англо-русских словарях, или не зафиксированные словарями новые значения слов, уже существующих в языке.

Для уяснения значения неологизма рекомендуется: 1) выяснить значение слова из контекста, 2) обратиться к послед­нему изданию одного из англо-русских или англо-английских сло­варей и попытаться отыскать данное слово в разделе «Новые сло­ва», 3) постараться выяснить значение нового слова, исходя из его структуры.

II. ^ При переводе неологизмов используются следующие пере­водческие приемы: 1) транскрипция, 2) транслитерация, 3) кальки­рование, 4) описательный перевод.

    1. Примеры транскрибирования неологизмов: beatniks битники, beatles битлзы, briefing брифинг, p.r.(public relations) — пиар.

    2. Транслитерация в настоящее время практически не употребля­ется: inauguration инаугурация, Benelux Бенелюкс.

    3. Примеры калькирования неологизмов (т. е. воспроизведения средствами русского языка значения и морфологической структуры нового английского слова или словосочетания): air bridge воздушный мост, shadow cabinet теневой кабинет, nuclear umbrella ядерный зонтик, brain trust мозговой трест.

    4. Примеры описательного перевода: to lobby посылать делега­тов для оказания давления на членов парламента — депутатов их округа; deterrent средство устрашения; сдерживающее средство, оружие; redundancy увольнение по сокращению штатов; landslide полная (блестящая) победа на выборах; gimmick трюк, штучка, хитроумное приспособление; какое-либо новшество, направленное на то, чтобы привлечь всеобщее внимание; brain drain эмиграция квалифицированных кадров («утечка умов»); brain washing идеоло­гическая обработка («промывание мозгов»); hawks and doves сто­ронники расширения войны и сторонники мира («ястребы и голу­би»); brain power квалифицированные кадры; brain tank мозговой трест; brain bank банк информации; think tank исследовательская группа, мозговой трест, резервуар научных кадров, научный центр; fact sheet перечень (документ о ...) фактических данных; skinheaded бритоголовые (часто о фашиствующей молодежи); low profile скромный, малозаметный; high profile яркий, очень заметный, вы­дающийся, runaways предприятия, переведенные на другую терри­торию или за границу.


^ III. Образование неологизмов.

1) Расширение значения. Слово, употребленное в различных контекстах, приобретает новые оттенки значения, а в ряде случаев и новые значения. Так, слово confrontation -первоначально означало очная ставка, сличение, сопоставление. С течением времени это слово стало употребляться в словосочетании confrontation of armed forces и приобрело значение соприкосновение вооруженных сил. В настоящее время слово confrontation приобрело значение (откры­тое) столкновение, противостояние, противоборство. Такие слова, как deterrent, redundancy, landslide и другие, также изменяли свое значение в связи с возникновением новой ситуации, возникшей по­требности.

Так, например, прилагательное «green» расширило свое перво­начальное значение и в различных сочетаниях в разное время означало: a green revolution — «зеленая» революция (революция в сель­ском хозяйстве ряда развивающихся стран, связанная с введением продуктов, полученных с использованием генной инженерии); the « greens» — доллары; green power — власть денег; the Green Party — партия «зеленых» (например, в Германии), выступающая в защиту окружающей среды; to do smth. in a «green» way — делать что-либо экологически чистым путем.

2) ^ Префиксальное и суффиксальное образование новых слов. Префикс re- означает повторность действия: rethinking переосмыс­ление, renazification ренацификация, retraining переподготовка, пере­квалификация, reimposition введение чего-л. снова.

Префикс de- придает значение обратного действия demilitarize демилитаризовать, denazify денацифицировать, denazification дена­цификация, denuclearise лишать ядерного оружия, deescalation деэс­калация, inflation инфляция, reflation рефляция, deflation дефляция.

Суффикс -ее образует существительные, которые очень часто пе­редают значение объекта действия: detainee задержанный (аресто­ванный), parolee взятый на поруки; retiree ушедший на пенсию.

3) Образование неологизмов путем конверсии: the needy нуж­дающиеся; to front-page помещать на первой странице; to snowball быстро распространяться, увеличиваться (расти, как снежный ком), the go-ahead предоставление « зеленой улицы».

4) Появилось много слов типа teach-in. Эти слова употребляются для обозначения различных форм протеста или разъяснительной кампании. Глагольный корень указывает на место или форму про­теста или кампании: teach-in диспут протеста (протест в форме проведения диспута); pray-in протест в церкви; sit-in демонстрация сидящих в знак протеста людей; sitters-in участники сидячей демон­страции.

Иногда такие слова указывают, на что направлено требование протестующих: buy-in требование равных возможностей при по­купке (дома); apply-in требование равных возможностей при найме на работу.

5) ^ Образование неологизмов путем объединения двух слов:

information + entertainment = infortainment; documentary + drama = docudrama; election + engineering = electioneering.

При переводе восстанавливаются полные значения обоих слов (например, информационно-развлекательный).

В результате нашумевшего во время президентства Р. Никсона политического скандала — использование в ходе его предвыборной кампании шпионажа для получения информации о планах соперни­чающей Демократической партии, национальный комитет которой находился в отеле Watergate,— слово gate в сочетании с именами собственными, иногда нарицательными, приобрело значение грубо­го политического скандала и привело к образованию ряда новых слов: Watergate Уотергейт; Lockheed-gate Локхидгейт — скандал, связанный с дачей компанией «Локхид» взяток японскому прави­тельству для получения выгодных заказов; Reagangate, debategate, briefinggate брифингейт—скандал, связанный с кражей людьми Рей­гана во время президентских выборов конфиденциальных докумен­тов Дж. Картера.

В последнее время в образовании неологизмов стали участвовать имена известных компаний Кока-Колы, Макдональдс и др. Так, to become the «Соса-Cola» of global wireless communication — стать всемирно известной (как Кока-Кола) компанией сотовой связи.


^ Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

  1. «The major deterrent is in a man's mind. The major deterrent in the future is going to be not only what we have, but what we do, what we are willing to do, what they think we will do. Stamina, guts, standing up for the things that we say — those are deterrents,» — wrote Admiral A.Burke in 1960.

  2. Local officials who obstruct or refuse voters registration can also be severely punished (though jury trials are a somewhat flimsy deterrent in the south of the U.S.A.).

  3. There was a dramatic confrontation between one of the dismissed lecturers and the Director.

  4. The Advisory Committee on Juvenile Delinquency— set up by the former Home Secretary and widely regarded as a gimmick — has been disbanded, the Commons was told yesterday. Its work will be taken over by specialist bodies.

  5. Stamp trading—the latest «something for nothing» gimmick aimed at shoppers — is coming under heavy fire this weekend from cooperative and retail trade chiefs.

  6. The Cambodien authorities have supplied the returnees with food, clothing and other essentials.

  7. When House and Senate conferees meet to reconcile conflicting versions of a bill, staff assistants get into the act. They formulate possible compromises and translate the agreements reached into legislative lan­guage.

  8. Top British economists today fired a deadly broadside at govern­ment monetarist policies and called for a «reflation» U-turn.

  9. Pressure is certainly building up before next month's budget for the trimming of the government's sails and a modest dose of reflation to soak up some of the unemployed.

However, there is no indication that the Premier is seriously listening to these appeals, nor that the Cabinet «wets» are yet strong enough to force him to change course.

  1. America's smaller governments are flexing their muscles; and devolution, which used to mean the shifting of power to the states, now increasingly means the shifting of power to cities and townships too.

  2. However, the president's drive toward «deregulation» goes in ex­actly the opposite direction, proposing to ease restrictions on coal dust and air pollution in general.

  3. Natural gas decontrol will have an explosive effect on inflation, while, at the same time, it will rob the economy of billions of dollars of productive capital needed to create jobs.

  4. He also repeated Britain's desire to see this question settled by the General Assembly as soon as possible, but there is still no indication whether Britain is actively lobbying for this behind the scenes.

  5. The car workers' lobby last week was an important step in the right direction. The issue should be pressed throughout the trade union move­ment and taken up by the workers in all industries.

  6. The movement «to kill the Bill» may snowball to irresistible pro­portions by the time when the Trades Union Congress recall conference on June 5.

  7. The US administration has given Israel the go-ahead to sell certain US-supplied military equipment to third countries, according to Israeli television.

  8. Bank workers' leaders yesterday gave the go-ahead for a series of selective one-day strikes at Barclays and Lloyds computer centres starting next week.

  9. With an officially estimated 50,000 jobs lost to plant closures and runaways between January and September, organized labor here (in Cali­fornia) has been pressing for protection.

  10. When the EU Parliament refused last month to approve the budget because of graft and mismanagement charges, the Socialists introduced a censure vote as a substitute for a confidence motion. But in doing this, they touched off an unprecedented movement of revolt among deputies ranging from Greens to the far right.

  11. The proposal is being backed by the moto industry, which fears that reuse and recycling targets may prove impossible unless vehicles are channeled into «green» dismantling and scrap yards.

  12. The editorial of the New York Times proceeds on the assumption that the main problem confronting the United States is «the debilitated state of American industry and the need for changes in Government pol­icy to revive it».

This is, in essence, the repeatedly tried and bankrupt «trickle down» policy. The corporate establishment seated in Washington decrees meas­ures to «save» maximum profit appropriation, with the possibility that something will trickle down to the mass of people.

  1. Reaganites have their pet project — a formula which strongly fa­vors big business by faster depreciation writeoffs. This measure is par­ticularly opposed by organized labor as a big business ripoff.

Next week the candidate will announce a supposedly «new» eco­nomic policy, which will also include big tax cuts for big business, on the «trickle down» theory. That theory argues that big business should get a lot so a little can trickle down to the people.

  1. Honest Clintonites admit that the leak probably came from their own side.

  2. Supply-side economic theory argues the economic growth is a re­sult of promoting production rather than increasing consumption. If the rewards of production are stifled through high taxes and burdensome government requirements, potential producers will not engage in produc­tive enterprises and the economy will not grow, according to the supply siders.

  3. Editorial-page article, sings a supply-side true believer's praises of the sales tax relief granted by the internet Tax Freedom Act. Unfortu­nately, it only provided tax relief from sales tax on Internet access charges — such as the $ 21.95 or so that users pay for monthly access.

  4. Thanks mainly to their workaholic new chairman, Germany's Christian Democrats have bounced back surprisingly well from their thumping defeat in the general election seven months ago.

  5. «Scandilux» is a newly coined phrase, current in Washington, to describe a trend in some smaller NATO countries toward becoming ab­sorbed in domestic political questions and neglecting broader issues of Western security.

  6. American think tanks offer prolific proposals for Transatlantic re­design.

  7. Graham Leicester, director of the Scottish Council Foundation, a think-tank, says that Scotland has one of the highest rates of child poverty in Europe.

  8. Downing Street yesterday moved swiftly to deny support for pro­posals from the Government's favoured think-tank for root-and-branch reform of the monarchy.

  9. According to a recent study of the brain-drain problem, the out­flow of highly trained personnel from many developing countries to a few major developed countries is increasing at a rapid rate. The study reveals that the United States and Canada are the main beneficiaries of the brain drain.

  10. The term «brain-washing» was first used by an American jour­nalist and originally the word used to describe indoctrination techniques. But it has since spread to refer to any form of influence that one disagrees with. At first conjured up as some « mysterious oriental device», it is now understood as an organized form of influencing individuals, groups or masses.

  11. Skinhead groups (of Central Europe) are well run. They distribute propaganda printed by American neo-Nazis in various languages and send out «skinzines» illegally through the post.

  12. Armed skinheads, chanting «Sieg Heil», mounted «a revenge raid» on black people in a London suburb, an Old Bailey jury was told yesterday.

Between 30 and 100 white youths, some with their heads shorn almost bald attacked about 100 to 150 black people in cinema queue in Wool­wich.

  1. Not content with slogans inciting to violence, some of the demon­strators acted in the tradition of the American lynchers. Spotting a long­haired youth, they jumped off their lorry shouting: «Get him, kill him, he is a beatnik, he burnt our flag.»

  2. The Minister of Economy need not conclude that the British worker is too cussed to fit into an economic plan, or that he will inevita­bly frustrate labour mobility. But grandiose general statement in White­hall about «shaking out labour» and redeployment are only convincing if they are accompanied by practical measures to make the intention a reality.

  3. In July a team of U.N. communications specialists moved into the country almost at the very moment the first contingents of «blue helmets» were deplaning at the Leopoldville airport.

  4. The biggest teach-in for London Telephone Region engineers is to be launched early next year.

  5. Workers on strike in several enterprises have occupied their plants and are staying day and night. The first to start the sit-in and sleep-in strike were the workers of the nationally owned Sud-Aviation plant at Nantes.

  6. He indicated in his statement that lowering the U.S. profile ap­pears to be a reasonable approach to the problem.

  7. He himself is doubtless aware the low-profile concept still leaves a number of questions unanswered. Some of the most pertinent.

  8. The President indicated in his statement that lowering the U.S. profile appears to involve a process of drawing up a list spelling out when the United States will—and when it will not interfere in Asia ...

  9. All of this adds up to what in diplomatic jargon has come to be known as the Administration's «low-profile» Asian policy. Boiled down to its essentials, low profile means that the U.S. will seek maximum influ­ence at minimum risk.

  10. President of the Czeck Republic yesterday had dinner with the Queen at the start of a high-profile trip intended to honour his role in leading his country to democracy.

  11. Buy Malaysia! Well, that is what some high-profile brokerages are suddenly telling clients. An expected easing of the capital controls is the chief reason behind the change of heart.

  12. High-profile miscarriages of justice persuaded many judges, law­yers and politicians that courts, no matter how careful, could never avoid executing some innocent people.

  13. The Russian National Orchestra has the highest profile, if only be­cause its independence gives it freedom of maneuver.

  14. The administration should put people to work by spending on livingly, not weaponry.

  15. The picture of a European economy in perpetual decline is a cari­cature. For example, American punditry has ignored the one-time effect of German unification in slowing European growth.

  16. In the journalistic labeling game, any political scandal touching the presidency is now a Something-Gate.

  17. Israel's rancorous election campaign was rocked Wednesday by a break-in at the Washington offices of a US political pollster advising Ehud Barak. The incident, which the Israeli media likened to Watergate, threatened to overshadow the opening of a Labor Party convention.

  18. The top spot on Mr. Blackwell's list of the worst-dressed women has gone to Linda Tripp. She has a look that makes her the « Starr» of her very own «Stylegate,» the former fashion director said.

  19. Labour accused Mr. King of blatant electioneering as he placed the crucial order for short range air-to-air missiles. Labour defence spokesman said: «It will come as a relief to the work force of those com­panies. Whether it will come as a relief to the Conservative candidates in those seats, it will remain to the election day to find out.»

  20. Another example of infortainment is docudrama, where real events are dramatised and reenacted by actors.

  21. The authors of the housing association report stress that their guidelines are not about ghettoisation or segregation, but are intended to promote intergration of minority cultures into mainstream Britain.

  22. Mr.Bauer's think-tank was created by James Dobson, a pluto­cratic televangelist; not surprisingly he maintains that Republican policies should rest on religious conservatism.

  23. Mr.Gate's presence threw Hong Kong into a technotizzy as the government announced a lot of Singapore rivalling projects, from a $1.6 billion «cyberport» to efforts to make Hong Kong the region's e-commerce hub.

  24. The drift towards virtue, along with a new code of conduct for Eurocrats published this week, is welcome.

  25. «Eurospeak is a separate in-house language, full of jargon, acro­nyms, abstractions — and a lot of it is gobbledygook», — said a British translator. He and others have begun a drive called «Fight the Fog» to prod officials into producing clear sentences.»

  26. American Eurosceptics accuse the European allies of being free riders on American-provided security.

  27. Just as European anti-Americanism damaged Western solidarity during the Cold War, so American Eurobashing threatens to unravel Transatlantic cooperation in the post-Cold War era.

  28. The President will do almost anything to get the press cameras lined up in the White House for pictures of him bringing two bitter adver­saries together [Israel and PLO]. He needs a foreign policy success or, more to the point, something that looks like a success. We have come to call this «photo-op diplomacy.»

  29. Photo-op diplomacy lacks an important ingredient — credibility.

  30. Clinton's defenders have transformed the Washington version of truth — telling into a subtle new form and demonstrated, for any who might have forgotten, how easy it is to manipulate the press — and, ulti­mately, the public.

The latest peek at the tricks of the trade comes from Lanny Davis, a former White House lawyer and one of Clinton's chief spin doctors during the 1997 congressional inquiries into alleged campaign fund-raising abuses.

  1. Another device for ensuring that bad news got a good spin was what Davis calls «deep-background private placement»: telling tales to a hand-picked reporter or news organization.

  2. Davis admits that all the spin had limited effect. «There is no way to spin the public away from the presumption of guilt when a public offi­cial is accused of scandal,» Davis tells US News.

  3. Sometimes the world of spin is more than an inside-the-beltway game.

  4. Through his refusal to follow the diktats of the spin-doctors and public relations consultants who dominate White Hall and Westminster when Parliament is in session, the Deputy Prime Minister has transformed his own image for the better.

  5. All the spin-doctoring in the world will not preserve the Govern­ment's present popularity.

  6. Something odd is happening to political correctness (speech code). On the one hand it is thriving. On the other hand its opponents are thriving too.

  7. Some dismiss (the language of) political correctness (PC) as an ir­relevance hyped up by the right; others see it as a leftist danger to the very fabric of American life; still others argue that it is plain passe. Is America in the throes of new-PC, anti-PC or post PC? It is hard to tell.

  8. Few diseases have been as politicised as AIDS. And in few other cases is political correctness such a danger to the disease's victims.

  9. Single-issue activists, incensed by human wrongs in Burma or re­ligious persecution in Tibet, increasingly drive American foreign policy.

  10. Both single-issue activism and the casual treatment of allies can hurt America. The single-issue crowd fails to consider the cost to Amer­ica of taking sanctions against each injustice that it cares about.

  11. Less welcome is the harsh political fact that pragmatists have trou­ble building constituencies, especially in this era of single-issue politics.

  12. Cellular phones are perhaps one of the most user-friendly devices modern technology has devised. However, can you imagine the potential stored within?

  13. In general, the regional parties [in India] are investor-friendly.

  14. While it is only realistic to acknowledge that devolution could «go wrong,» the reality is that the new parliaments in Scotland and Wales are more likely to invigorate Britain than enfeeble it. In different ways, the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the British as a whole stand to benefit from devolution.

  15. «Renault» and «Nissan» = Renissant? Pushing together «Renault» and «Nissan» does not quite spell renaissance. Yet, that is what both car firms now seek.

  16. The new (mobile-phone) company, to be called Vodafone Air Touch PLC... aims to become the «Соса-Cola» of global wireless com­munication — the main brand recognized by consumers world-wide.

  17. One of Britain's leading directors yesterday expressed despair at being told unofficially by the Art Council that «there is sufficient serious theatre in London. He said that the council's attitude was symptomatic of the Government's populist and narrow-minded approach — a «McDonald's culture.»

  18. «Escapisms» is a word that tends to pop up frequently in discus­sions with students and faculty members.


§ 15. ИНТЕРНАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ И ПСЕВДОИНТЕРНАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ ЛЕКСИКА. «ЛОЖНЫЕ ДРУЗЬЯ ПЕРЕВОДЧИКА»


В современных словарях английского и русского языков есть чрезвычайно большое число сходных по форме и звучанию слов, а в последние десятилетия объем такой лексики увеличился. Можно на­звать десятки английских слов, вошедших в русский язык: atlas, football, progress leader, diplomacy process, tendency и т.д. Однако да­же среди безусловно интернациональных слов можно отметить раз­ницу в их употреблении в английском и русском языках (что не от­носится к терминам). Так, progress — не только прогресс, но и ус­пехи, достижения, развитие; leader — не только лидер, но и руко­водитель, глава (делегации) и т.п. При переводе выбор нужного эк­вивалента определяется жанром переводимого текста, сочетаемо­стью слов в русском языке и другими факторами.

Для переводчиков хорошо известна «легкость» перевода интер­национальной лексики.

1. Прежде всего, это так называемые «ложные друзья» перево­дчика, т.е. слова, схожие с русскими словами по фонетической или/и графической форме, но имеющие совершенно иное значение. На­пример:


prospect

перспектива (а не проспект)

magazine

журнал (а не магазин)

actual

действительный (а не актуальный)

decade

десятилетие (а не декада)

momentous

важный (а не моментальный)

accurate

точный (а не аккуратный)

technique

способ, метод (а не техника)

advocate

сторонник (а не адвокат)

aspirant

претендент, кандидат (а не аспирант)

complexion

цвет лица (а не комплекция)


Список «ложных друзей» приводится в учебниках по переводу, а также в некоторых словарях, например: Cambridge International Dictionary of English.

2. Большую трудность чем собственно «ложные друзья» перево­дчика представляют многозначные английские слова, одно из зна­чений которых вошло в русский язык, причем, нередко не самое частотное (см. §10 Многозначные слова). Например:


nation

нация, народ, государство

partisan


сторонник, приверженец, фанатик, партизан (редк.); партийный, необъективный, предвзятый

control v.


руководить, управлять, распоряжаться, владеть, контролировать, иметь большинство (в палате парламента)

meeting

собрание, заседание, митинг; встреча; дуэль

dramatic

драматичный; драматический; яркий, неожиданный, впечатляющий, важный realize выполнять, реализовать; представлять себе, осознавать

record

запись, летопись; учет, регистрация, данные, характеристика, протокол, рекорд, позиция

argument

довод, аргумент; спор.


Примечание. Эти слова могут иметь и другие оттенки значения и в зависимости от контекста переводиться иначе.

3. Причиной ошибок при переводе может быть грамматическое несовпадение схожих английских и русских слов. Так, ряд существительных в английском языке употребляется в единственном и множественном числе, а в русском - только в единственном. (Например, economy, policy, industry). Во множественном числе industries может означать отрасли промышленности или промышленность (ряда стран); policies политика, политический курс (ряда стран или в разных областях), например: foreign and do­mestic policies of the new government — внешняя и внутренняя поли­тика нового правительства.


nuclear weapons

ядерное оружие

democracies

демократические государства


Некоторые существительные в английском языке во множест­венном числе приобретают новые значения. Например:

difference разница, различие

differences 1) различия; 2) разногласия

development 1) развитие; 2) участок, подлежащий

освоению; 3) микрорайон; 4) тенденция.

developments события


Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

  1. The heaviest blow that the atom bomb fanatics got, however, came with the dramatic announcement that the Russians also have got the bomb.

  2. As they participate in the fight for dramatic reforms large sections of the population come to realize the necessity of unity of action and to become more active, politically.

  3. The Administration, of course, is loath to contemplate such a fun­damental change in its foreign policy. The stakes are too high and Ameri­can bonds with Europe too numerous to permit such a dramatic situation.

  4. The Prime Minister's dramatic European move was timed to divert public attention from the more dismal news of the freeze.

  5. There is a popular tendency, among most newsmen and radio and TV commentators, to portray Congressmen as men who are working themselves to death, sweating and suffering heart attacks to serve the people.

  6. He seems to have excluded himself from the vice-presidential can­didacy at a time when the public opinion polls report that he is more popular than both the President and the Vice-president.

  7. The victory of the popular revolution in Cuba has become a splen­did example for the peoples of Latin America.

  8. The President of Brazil made himself very popular when he killed hyperinflation and gave his country a solid currency. But he didn't follow through by reforming government itself.

  9. This year the election falls on November 3. The outcome is gener­ally known the next morning, though formally the balloting takes place in the Electoral College in early December.

  10. The Prime Minister will reply to the speeches on Monday, after informal talks last night, this evening and tomorrow with the Common­wealth Prime Ministers, who have been invited in three groups.

  11. Some right of privacy, however qualified, has been a major differ­ence between democracies and dictatorships.

  12. We must fortify the international system by helping transitional or otherwise troubled states become full participants. This is essential to maintain the momentum of democracy's recent advances.

  13. In foreign policy political democracies may be isolationist, inter­nationalist, or imperialist.

  14. A country whose people are willing to march out into the world, and if necessary to die there, is a likelier candidate for great-power rank than one whose people do not feel that way; and the difference matters even more between two democracies than it does between two dictator­ships, because in a democracy people's wishes count for more.

  15. This policy will ensure that successive currency crises do not af­fect the level of economic activity and overall welfare of the nation.

  16. The meeting expressed the hope that the remaining points of dif­ferences would be settled when the conference is resumed in Geneva.

  17. The main item on the agenda, and one over which most differences exist, was the proposed agreement.

  18. A conspiracy is being brewed in Wall Street and Washington to deny the people any choice in the Presidential elections. The tactic is to suppress the issues and blur any differences between the Republican and Democratic candidates.

  19. A general strike is one which affects an entire industry, an entire locality or a whole country.

  20. Disarmament will release for civilian employment millions of people now serving in the armed forces and war industries.

  21. This fact is recognition of the weight and power of public opinion, of its growing influence on international developments.

  22. The State Secretary was reported to be dispirited by the outcome of the day's developments and waiting to see what would be done to shore up his authority.

  23. Such development would emphasize the region's economic im­portance and growth potential which would be reflected in its population growth, housing and overspill problems.

  24. The Prime Minister said that the Government was prepared to set up publicly owned enterprises in the development areas.

  25. In a strategic sense, the Norwegian approach if pressed further, appears to be a development that could lead toward dividing Europe from the United States.

  26. Already very many sections of the Labour, trade union and coop­erative movements support policies on these lines. Their members num­ber millions.

  27. To get the kind of Budget the country needs means a fight for a different policy within the Labour movement.

  28. American politics is passing through a highly unusual phase. In a country where local issues usually dominate voting patterns, foreign pol­icy has surprisingly emerged as the defining issue of the current political debate.

  29. Mrs. Robinson admits she is not a natural politician in the Irish sense: she lacks the glad-handing skills so valued in the small world of Irish politics.

  30. Aides billed the president's speech to California business and policy leaders as a major address laying out his goals for the remainder of his term.

  31. In the fluid world of Middle Eastern politics, the Iraqi Kurds, de­spite massacres and betrayals, still maintain lines of communication with the President.

  32. But even if conservatives triumph, those involved in the contest say the energy of street-level politics, and the sense among Iranians that the election is providing them with a genuine voice in local government, can only speed the process of liberalization.

  33. Nothing would do more to protect American security in the dec­ades ahead than ensuring that Russia's immense stockpile of nuclear weapons and materials is diminished and adequately controlled.

  34. The next decade or two may bring specific threats from specific Muslim countries, such as a nuclear-armed Iran or Algeria; but there is no sign yet of a shoulder-to-shoulder Islam.

  35. It can certainly be said that lax management, waste and worse have been part and parcel of Brussels programmes for decades.

  36. No particular fan of an American model, Mr. Pfister describes the investigation of the US President by an independent counsel as partisan, inspired by the right wing of the Republican Party, and using inquisition — like methods.

  37. It is surely chauvinistic to identify the West with America and Britain alone, and partisan to attribute its slow triumph to one favoured thread of an ever complicated politics.

  38. No mean partisan Representative, Tom Campell, Republican of California, has joined with Representative Barney Frank, Democrat of Massachusetts, to gather some 40 congressmen to demand on constitu­tional grounds that the president obtain authority from Congress before taking military action against a country [Yugoslavia].

  39. A full warning [of nuclear blackmail] came from the report of the commission on missile threats. This was a bipartisan commission, with members who have often disagreed on weapons issues.

  40. Under a compromise already reached by the Environment Minis­ter, a Greens lawmaker, and the Economics Minister, a non-partisan en­ergy expert, the ban (of sending spent fuel out of Germany for reprocess­ing) will not take effect until a year after passage.

  41. Years of partisan wrangling over the US deficit, taxation, foreign aid and contributions to international organizations have created a con­sensus that Americans cannot pay more and resentment that the European allies appear to be paying less.

  42. The Iraqi Kurds may be running their affairs autonomously for now, but all know how devastating the disciplined Iraqi armored units can be against their lightly armed guerrillas.

  43. The report said the Mayan population in Guatemala paid the high­est price, when the military identified them as natural allies of the guer­rillas.

  44. Whether a second chamber should be elected or nominated, with regions or special interests represented, is getting decision the wrong way round.

  45. The death of about 500 people in an explosion in South-Eastern Nigeria is being blamed on the sabotage of a fuel pipeline: saboteurs breached it last week.

  46. Tired of corruption and crime in the state (Maharashtra, India), voters, with some help from a few honest bureaucrats, are starting to dis­own bad government.

  47. Few among her admirers would call her a natural bureaucrat, or a natural diplomat, or a good «details» person — all of which a European commissioner needs to be.

  48. In recent years in particular, an emboldened class of investigating magistrates has made unprecedented progress in investigating public offi­cials suspected of abusing their position.

  49. In the Balkans and elsewhere, we are supporting the advocates of moderation and tolerance against the ruthless exploiters of ethnic hatred.

  50. Americans must exert themselves not only to listen more carefully to European concerns but also to convey them accurately to political opinion makers in the USA.

  51. Domestic law enforcement has many techniques for gathering data, including lawful wiretaps and grand jury investigations.

  52. Many of the most internationalist of administration officials feed rather than combat congressional resentment [over the European allies].

  53. The war in Kosovo is a reminder of the split between interven­tionists, such as Mr. McCain, and isolationists, such as Pat Buchanan, a fire-breathing presidential aspirant who says that the United States should never have got involved in the Balkans in the first place.

  54. The offenders were told, that the Police Department would use all its legal powers against them unless the killings stopped.

  55. The new model was brought to Barclay, which is a public school. It means lots of homework, a gruelling workload of spelling tests, rigor­ous instruction in math and science, and steady infusion of world history, literature and art to ensure that the children become ((.culturally literate.»

  56. Calvert is an exclusive private school in Baltimore, with an over­whelmingly white, middle-class student body and an outstanding aca­demic reputation.

  57. The traditional curriculum, such as it was, virtually disintegrated during the campus upheavals of the 1960s, when millions of students de­manded and won the right to get academic credit for studying whatever they pleased.

  58. Direct democracy obliterates the distinction between government and the governed, it is a system of popular self-government.

  59. With American unemployment at record post-war low and the economy steaming ahead, industries such as steel and memory chips have resorted to anti-dumping suits to protect themselves against imports.

  60. Mr. Howard is relying on the minutes of a meeting held on January 10th at the Home office to support his claim that he did not mislead MPs.

  61. If the Prime minister is to win the referendum he plans to call soon after the next election, he needs the European project to continue to con­vey an impression of remorseless forward momentum... What, though, if the momentum stalls, or seems to?



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